Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Hepatol. Mar 27, 2015; 7(3): 488-497
Published online Mar 27, 2015. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v7.i3.488
Table 1 Published cases of healthcare worker-to-patient transmission of hepatitis B virus
Ref.YearLocationType of providerHBeAg statusViral loadHBV status known to providerHBV status known to institutionNo. of patients infectedBreach in infection control identified
[7]1969United StatesNurseNot doneNot doneNoNo11a (11 possible)None
[8]1969-1974United StatesOral surgeonPositiveNot doneNot specifiedNot specified55 (10 probable, 45 possible)HCW did not wear gloves
[9]1973-1977SwitzerlandGeneral practitionerPositiveNot doneYesNot specified41 (41 possible)None
[10]1974United StatesRespiratory therapistPositiveNot doneNoNo4 (4 probable)HCW did not wear gloves, had an exudative dermatitis on hands, and reused syringes when accessing indwelling arterial catheters
[11]1975United StatesOral surgeonNot doneNot doneNot specifiedNot specified43 (43 probable)None
[12]1976-1979United KingdomSurgical registrarPositiveNot doneNoNo9 (7 probable, 2 possible)None
[13]1977-1978United KingdomSurgical registrar, gynecologic surgeryPositiveNot doneNoNo8 (6 probable, 2 possible)None
[14]1978United StatesDentistPositiveNot doneYesNot specified6 (2 probable, 4 possible)HCW did not wear gloves
[15]1978NorwayCardiac surgeonPositiveNot doneNoNo5 (5 probable)None
[16]1978-1979United StatesOral surgeonPositiveNot doneNoNo12 (4 probable, 8 possible)HCW did not wear gloves and had a generalized eczematous dermatitis, including hand involvement
[17]1979-1980United StatesObstetrician-gynecologistPositiveNot doneYesYes4 (1 probable, 3 possible)HCW held needle in hand rather than a needle holder when suturing, noted several episodes of blood on hands after removing gloves
[18]1979-1981The NetherlandsCardiac surgeonNot reportedNot doneNot specifiedNot specified3 (3 probable)None
[18]1979-1981The NetherlandsPerfusion technicianPositiveNot doneNot specifiedNot specified11 (8 probable, 3 possible)Bleeding warts on HCW’s hands
[19]1980United StatesOral surgeonNot doneNot doneNot specifiedNot specified3 (3 probable)None
[20]1980-1983United KingdomPerfusion technicianPositiveNot doneYesNot specified6 (6 probable)HCW did not wear gloves, and had cuts and abrasions on hands
[20]1980-1983United KingdomSurgical registrarNot reportedNot doneNot specifiedNot specified5 (5 possible)None
[20]1980-1983United KingdomHouse officerNot reportedNot doneNot specifiedNot specified1 (1 possible)None
[21]1984United StatesObstetrician-gynecologistPositiveNot doneNot specifiedNot specified6 (6 probable)None
[22]1984-1985United StatesDentistPositiveNot doneNoNo24 (6 probable, 18 possible)HCW did not wear gloves
[23]1987United StatesGeneral surgeonPositiveNot doneYesNot specified5 (3 probable, 2 possible)None
[24]1987United KingdomObstetrician-gynecologistPositiveNot doneNoNo22 (6 probable, 16 possible)None
[25]1988United KingdomGeneral surgeonNegative1 × 107 copies/mLNoNo1 (1 confirmed)None
[25]1988United KingdomObstetrician-gynecologist, traineeNegative4.4 × 106 copies/mLNoNo3 (3 confirmed)None
[25]1988United KingdomObstetrician-gynecologist, traineeNegative5.5 × 106 copies/mLYesNot specified1 (1 confirmed)None
[25]1988United KingdomGeneral surgeon, urologist, clinical assistantNegative2.5 × 105 copies/mLNoNo1 (1 confirmed)None
[26]1988United KingdomCardiothoracic surgeon, traineePositiveNot doneNoNo17 (9 probable, 8 possible)None
[27]1991United KingdomSurgeonPositiveNot doneNoNo3 (3 possible)None
[28]1991CanadaOrthopedic surgeonPositiveNot doneYesYes2 (1 probable, 1 possible)None
[29]1991-1992United StatesThoracic surgeonPositive1 × 109 copies/mLYesNot specified19 (9 confirmed, 4 probable, 6 possible)None
[30]1991-1993United KingdomCardiothoracic surgeonPositiveNot doneYesNo20 (14 confirmed, 6 probable)None
[31]1991-1996CanadaElectroencephalogram technicianPositiveNot doneNoNo75 (4 confirmed, 71 possible)HCW did not wear gloves and used reusable subdermal EEG electrodes
[32]1993United KingdomGeneral surgeonPositiveNot doneNoNo2 (2 confirmed)None
[33]1993-1994United KingdomGeneral surgeon, traineePositiveNot doneNot specifiedNot specified11 (1 confirmed, 10 possible)None
[33]1994United KingdomGeneral surgeon, traineePositiveNot doneNot specifiedNot specified2 (2 possible)None
[33]1994United KingdomUrologist, traineePositiveNot doneNot specifiedNot specified1 (1 possible)None
[34]1995-1999The NetherlandsGeneral surgeonPositive5 × 109 GE/mLNoNo28 (8 confirmed, 20 possible)HCW noted glove perforations
[35]1996United KingdomOrthopedic surgeonNegative but anti-HB e positive (pre-core mutant)Not doneYesYes1 (1 confirmed)None
[36]1999United KingdomCardiothoracic surgeonNegative but anti-HB e positive (pre-core mutant)1.03 × 106 GE/mLYesYes2 (2 confirmed)None
[37]2001United KingdomGeneral surgeonNegative> 106 copies/mLNoNo3 (3 confirmed)None
[38]2009United StatesOrthopedic surgeonPositive> 17.9 million IU/mLNoNo8 (2 confirmed, 6 possible)None
[39]2010JapanObstetrician-gynecologistPositive1.6 × 109 copies/mLNoNo1 (1 confirmed)None