Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Hepatol. Nov 8, 2015; 7(25): 2571-2577
Published online Nov 8, 2015. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v7.i25.2571
Table 3 Acute insult/precipitating event in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure
As per APASL criteriaAs per EASL-CLIF criteria
Hepatotropic viral infectionsBacterial infection
Reactivation of HBVGastrointestinal hemorrhage
HEV super-infectionActive alcoholism within the past 3 mo
Active alcohol consumption (within last 28 d)Other precipitating events
Drug induced liver injuryTransjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting
Complimentary and alternative medicinesMajor surgery
Severe autoimmune hepatitisTherapeutic paracentesis without use of intravenous albumin
Flare of Wilson's diseaseHepatitis
Non-hepatotropic insults (if producing direct hepatic insult)Alcoholic hepatitis (liver biopsy required for diagnosis)
SurgeryNo precipitating event identified
Viral infections
No acute insult identifiable