Copyright ©2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc.
World J Hepatol. May 27, 2014; 6(5): 293-305
Published online May 27, 2014. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v6.i5.293
Figure 1
Figure 1 Life cycle of Echinococcus granulosus. Source:
Figure 2
Figure 2 Diagrammatic representation of the metacestode of Echinococcus granulosus. Source: Eckert J, Gemmell MA, Meslin FX and Pawłowski ZS. WHO/OIE Manual on Echinococcosis in Humans and Animals: a Public Health Problem of Global Concern. Paris, France, 2001. E. granulosus: Echinococcus granulosus.
Figure 3
Figure 3 Appearance of cystic fluid. A: Clean and clear cyst fluid from a diagnostic puncture; B: Yellowish and turbid echinococcal fluid in a catheter bag after percutaneous catheterization.
Figure 4
Figure 4 World Health Organization Informal Working Group on Echinococcosis standardised classification of echinococcal cysts. Source: World Health Organization Informal Working Group on Echinococcosis. CE: Cystic echinococcosis; CL: Cystic lesions.
Figure 5
Figure 5 Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of hepatic cystic echinococcosis. A and B: Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) abdominal scan of a 59-year-old male patient with a CE3b cyst in the VII liver segment; C: Disseminated peritoneal echinococcosis in 64-year-old male patient, 30 years after surgery for CE without albendazole prophylaxis[1]; D: Abdominal CT scan of a 59-year-old female patient with a CE3a cyst in the IV-VIII liver segments; E: Abdominal CT scan of a 47-year-old male patient with a CE5 calcified cyst in the VIII liver segment; F: Abdominal magnetic resonance imaging scan of a 52-year-old male patient with a CE3b cyst in the VIII segment.
Figure 6
Figure 6 Schematic representation of the natural history of hepatic cystic echinococcosis and suggested treatments. Solid black arrow indicates natural evolution toward inactivation; black dashed arrows indicate evolution of therapy-unresponsive chronic stages. US images: cyst ultrasound classifications according to World Health Organization Informal Working Group on Echinococcosis[23] (in bold) and Gharbi et al[22]. Gray boxes: suggested stage-specific approach to uncomplicated hepatic CE[59]. ABZ: Albendazole; PAIR: Puncture, aspiration, injection of scolecidal agent, re-aspiration; PC: Permanent catheterization.