Copyright ©The Author(s) 2021.
World J Stem Cells. Mar 26, 2021; 13(3): 208-220
Published online Mar 26, 2021. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v13.i3.208
Table 1 Immunoregulatory mechanisms of mesenchymal stromal cells in alleviating chemically-induced acute liver failure
Species of MSCs
Reagents for model
Immune cell
MouseBone marrow5 × 105Mouseα-GalCerTregIncrease the population of Tregs and their capacity to produce IL-10; attenuate hepatotoxicity of NKT cells in an IDO-dependent mannerAttenuate ALFGazdic et al[9]
MouseBone marrow1 × 106Mouse TAAMacrophage/T cellInhibit macrophage infiltration; reduce Th1 and Th17 cells and increase TregsAmeliorate FHF and reduces mortalityHuang et al[78]
RatBone marrow1 × 107RatD-GalN/LPSNeutrophilReduce the number and activity of neutrophils in both peripheral blood and liverImprove the liver functionZhao et al[77]
MouseBone marrow5 × 105MouseCon A/α-GalCerNKT cellAttenuate the cytotoxicity and capacity of liver NKT in an iNOS- and IDO-dependent mannerAttenuate ALFGazdic et al[72]
MouseBone marrow5 × 105MouseCCl4/a-GalCerNKT cellReduce IL-17-producing NKT cells and increase the presence of IL-10-producing NKT regulatory cells in an IDO-dependent mannerAttenuate ALFMilosavljevic et al[74]
MouseAdipose tissueAMSC-Exo, 400 μgMouseLPS/D-GalNMacrophageReduce NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages by targeting TXNIPAttenuate ALFLiu et al[36]