Copyright ©The Author(s) 2020.
World J Stem Cells. Aug 26, 2020; 12(8): 814-840
Published online Aug 26, 2020. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v12.i8.814
Table 1 Characteristics of different types of extracellular vesicles
FeatureExosomesMicrovesiclesApoptotic bodies
Diameter and shape30-100 nm, cup shape100-1000 nm, irregular shape1-5 μm, heterogeneous shape
Sucrose gradient1.13-1.19 g/mL1.04-1.07 g/mL1.18-1.28 g/mL
Sedimentation100000 g10000 g16000 g
Protein markersCD63, CD81, CD9, Alix, Tsg101, annexins, heat-shock proteinsIntegrins, selectins, CD40, flotillins, CD40, ARF6, VCAMP3TSP, C3b, histones
OriginFusion of multivesicular bodies with cell membraneOutward budding of cell membraneOutward budding of apoptotic cell membrane
Lipid contentCeramidePhosphatidylserinePhosphatidylserine
Nucleic acidsDNA, mRNA, miRNA, non-coding RNADNA, mRNA, miRNA, non-coding RNAFragmented DNA, mRNA, miRNA, non-coding RNA
Table 2 Summary of exosome isolation methods
UltracentrifugationPhysical methodA golden standard; low cost; a wide range of volumesLow yield; low purity; time-consuming
Membrane filtrationPhysical method using filtersSimple; fast; high yield; keeps exosomes intactLow purity; deformation of exosomes
PrecipitationPhysical/chemical methodHigh yield; easy; high recoveriesLow purity; contaminants
Size exclusion chromatographyUse columns packed with pore beadsHigh yield; reduces exosome aggregation; keeps exosomes intactA small number of bands; time-consuming
Immunoaffinity capture technologyMagnetic beads bound to specific antibodiesHigh yield; high purity; specialtyTime-consuming; high cost
Table 3 Clinical studies with mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes
Study titleDiseaseInterventionPhaseNCT
Allogenic mesenchymal stem cell derived exosome in patients with acute ischemic strokeCerebrovascular disordersBiological: ExosomeCompletedNCT03384433
A pilot clinical study on inhalation of mesenchymal stem cells exosomes treating severe novel coronavirus pneumoniaCoronavirusBiological: MSCs-derived exosomesPhase 1NCT04276987
Effect of microvesicles and exosomes therapy on β-cell mass in type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM)Diabetes mellitus type 1Biological: MSC ExosomesPhase 2, Phase 3NCT02138331
iExosomes in treating participants with metastatic pancreas cancer with KrasG12D mutationMetastatic pancreatic adenocarcinomaDrug: Mesenchymal stromal cells-derived exosomes with KRAS G12D siRNAPhase 1NCT03608631
Effect of UMSCs Derived exosomes on dry eye in patients with cGVHDDry eyeDrug: Umbilical mesenchymal stem cells derived exosomesPhase 1, Phase 2NCT04213248
Evaluation of adipose derived stem cells treatment of periodontitisPeriodontitisBiological: Adipose derived stem cells exosomesEarly phase 1NCT04270006
A tolerance clinical study on aerosol inhalation of mesenchymal stem cells exosomes in healthy volunteersHealthyBiological: Low level of MSCs-Exo Biological: High level of MSCs-ExoPhase 1NCT04313647
MSC-Exos promote healing of MHsMacular holesBiological: Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-Exo)Early Phase 1NCT03437759