Copyright ©The Author(s) 2020.
World J Stem Cells. Aug 26, 2020; 12(8): 803-813
Published online Aug 26, 2020. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v12.i8.803
Table 1 Characteristics of three main types of extracellular vesicles
Types of vesiclesDiameterMarkersCargosDensity (g/mL)OriginRef.
Exosomes30-150 nmCD63, CD81, CD9, HSP70, Flotillin, TSG101, etc.mRNA, microRNA, lncRNA, circRNA, DNA lipid, protein, etc.1.13-1.18Endosomes pathway[51,74-77]
Microvesicles50-1000 nmIntegrins, selectins, CD40 ligandmRNA, microRNA, other non-coding RNA, protein, etc.1.16-1.19Plasma membrane; outward budding[51,75]
Apoptotic bodies500-2000 nmPhosphatidylserine, genomic DNANuclear fractions, cell organelles, etc.1.16-1.28Plasma membrane[47,51,78]
Table 2 Studies on exosomes for intervertebral disc degeneration
Ref.Experimental objectiveCargo analysisAnimal modelIn vitro appraisementIn vivo appraisementInhibition testResearch type
HBMSCs; Lu et al[26]To detect the role of exosomes derived from BM-MSCs in NPCsNot mentionedNone(1) Promoted proliferation; and (2) Increased synthesis of extracellular matrix and decrease in degradationNoneNoneCell experimentation
HBMSC; Cheng et al[28]To explore the protective effect of MSC-exosomes on NPCs in a cell and rat modelHighly enrichment in miR-21SD rat model of IVD degeneration by needle puncture(1) Decreased apoptosis rate; and (2) Decreased cleaved caspase-3(1) IVD degeneration score lower; (2) Decreased apoptosis rate; and (3) Lower histologic scoreMiR-21 antagonist enhanced cell apoptosisCell and animal experimentation
Rat nucleus pulposus; Moen et al[79]To study the role of extracellular miRNA in lumbar radicular painIncreased miR-223Lewis rat IVD herniationNoneMiR-223 increased after disc herniationNoneAnimal experimentation
Porcine notochordal cells; Bach et al[80]To explore the biologic effect of the NCCM-derived EVs on canine and human CLCs from degenerated IVDs in vitroNoneNoneIncreased glycosaminoglycan (GAG) depositionNoneNoneCell experimentation
HBMSCs; Liao et al[27]To prove that the delivery of MSC-exos could modulate ER stress and inhibit excessive NP cell apoptosis during IDDNoneSD rat model of IVD degeneration by needle puncture(1) Western blot and TUNEL assays indicated decreased apoptosis rate; and (2) Western blot and qPCR data indicated decreased reticulum stress(1) Higher DHI; (2) Lower Pfirrmann grade; (3) Lower histological grades; and (4) Decreased apoptosis rateAkt inhibitor LY294002; ERK inhibitor PD98059Cell and animal experimentation
C57BL/6 mice BMSCs; Xia et al[69]To investigate the therapeutic effect of exosomes for use as IVDD therapeuticsNoneRabbit model of IVD degeneration by needle puncture(1) Decreased apoptosis rate; (2) Western blot and qPCR data indicated recovery of matrix homeostasis; (3) Decreased inflammatory marker expression; (4) Suppressed inflammasome; and (5) Recovery of mitochondrial-related proteins and attenuated mitochondrial dysfunction(1) Higher DHI; (2) Lower Pfirrmann MRI grade; (3) Lower histological grades; and (4) Decreased apoptosis rateNoneCell and animal experimentation