Copyright ©The Author(s) 2020.
World J Stem Cells. Apr 26, 2020; 12(4): 251-265
Published online Apr 26, 2020. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v12.i4.251
Table 1 Expression profile of ncRNAs involved in the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells
mi-RNAMicroarray3 hPDLSCs from normal healthy premolars without periodontitis or caries cultured in mineralized medium and 3 in non-mineralized medium30 upregulated and 86 downregulated miRNAs (P < 0.05, FC ≥ 2)Hao et al[37] 2017
mi-RNAMicroarray6 samples from untreated hPDLSCs and 6 hPDLSCs under osteogenic inductionmiR-24-3p with the minimum fold change was significantly downregulated (P < 0.05, FC ≥ 2)Li et al[38] 2019
mi-RNAMicroarray3 hPDLSCs cultured with 5.5 mmol/L glucose or 3 cultured with 25 mmol/L glucose mineralized mediumAnalyzed 700 miRNAs and found miR-31 was the most upregulated in hPDLSCs cultured with 25 mmol/L glucose (P < 0.01, FC ≥ 2)Zhen et al[48] 2017
mi-RNAMicroarray3 hPDLSCs from 3 volunteers not subjected to stretch and 3 hPDLSCs from 3 volunteers subjected to mechanical stretch26 miRNAs were up-regulated while 27 miRNAs were down-regulated with stretching (P < 0.01, FC ≥ 2)Wei et al[55] 2014
lncRNARNA sequencing3 PDLSCs every group cultured in an osteogenic medium for 0, 3, 7, or 14 dlncRNAs showed stage-specific expression, and 17 lncRNAs were up-regulated while31 were down-regulated in PDLSCs in an osteogenic medium for 3, 7, or 14 d (P < 0.05, FC ≥ 2)Zheng et al[68] 2018
lncRNAMicroarray3 hPDLSCs both in osteoblast-induced group and non-induced group994 lncRNAs were up-regulated and 1177 lncRNAs were down-regulated during osteogenic differentiation in PDLSCs at 14 d (P < 0.05, FC ≥ 2)Qu et al[69] 2016
lncRNARNA sequencing3 hPDLSCs subjected to static compressive stress (2 g/cm2) for 12 h and 3 normal hPDLSCs72 lncRNAs were upregulated and 18 downregulated by compressive stress (P < 0.05, FC ≥ 1.5)Huang et al[70] 2019
lncRNAMicroarray3 noninduced and 3 osteogenically induced hPDLSCs12 upregulated and 8 downregulated lncRNAs and MEG3 belonging to significant downregulation genes in induced cells (P < 0.05, FC ≥ 2)Liu et al[73] 2019
lncRNAMicroarray3 hPDLSCs from 3 normal persons and 3 pPDLSCs from 3 periodontitis patients with osteogenic differentiation89 lncRNAs were differentially expressed between the two groups of cells and lncRNA-POIR was the most significantly altered between the non-induced group and osteogenic-induced group (P < 0.05, FC > 2)Wang et al[77] 2016
lncRNA and circRNARNA sequencing3 samples from untreated hPDLSCs and 3 hPDLSCs under osteogenic inductionA total of 960 lncRNAs and 1456 circRNAs were found to be differentially expressed (P < 0.05, FC ≥ 2)Gu et al[67] 2017
circRNARNA sequencing3 hPDLSCs were subjected to mechanical force and 3 hPDLSCs were not subjected to forceidentified 2970 and 2788 circRNAs, respectively, in the control group and the force group, and 1191 circRNAs were significantly upregulated and 1,487 were downregulated in the force group (P < 0.05, FC > 2)Wang et al[89] 2019
Table 2 Overview of ncRNAs involved in the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells
ncRNAsRegulatory levelsModes of actionAssociated signaling pathways or biomarkersRef.
miR-24-3pPosttranscriptional regulationInteracting with Smad5 3′-UTRInhibits Smad5 and Runx2, BMP2, OCN biomarkersLi et al[38] 2019
miR-21Posttranscriptional regulationInteracting with Smad5 3′-UTRInhibits Smad5 and Runx2, ALP, BSP, OSX biomarkersWei et al[39] 2017
Interacting with Spry1 3′-UTRInhibits Spry1 and Runx2, OSX biomarkersYang et al[40] 2017
Interacting with ACVR2B 3′-UTRInhibits ACVR2B and enhances Runx2, OCN, ALP biomarkersWei et al[56] 2015
miR-203Posttranscriptional regulationInteracting with Runx2 3′-UTRInhibits Runx2 and ALP, OCN, OPN biomarkersFeng et al[41] 2019
miR-1305Posttranscriptional regulationInteracting with Runx2 3′-UTRInhibits Runx2 and ALP, OCN, OPN biomarkersChen et al[42] 2017
miR-218Posttranscriptional regulationInteracting with Runx2 3′-UTRInhibits Runx2 and OCT4, NANOG cytokinesGay et al[43] 2014
miR-214Posttranscriptional regulationInteracting with ATF4 3′-UTRInhibits ATF4 and Runx2, ALP, OCN biomarkersYao et al[44] 2017
Interacting with CTNNB1 3′-UTRActivates Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and inhibits ALP, OCN, BSP biomarkersCao et al[45] 2017
miR-17Posttranscriptional regulationInteracting with TCF3 3′-UTRInhibits Runx2, ALP biomarkersLiu et al[46] 2013
Interacting with Smurf1 3′-UTRActivates Smad family proteins and Runx2, ALP, OCN biomarkersLiu et al[47] 2011
miR-31Posttranscriptional regulationInteracting with Stab2 3′-UTRInhibits Stab2 and Runx2, OSX, OCN biomarkersZhen et al[48] 2017
miR-200cPosttranscriptional regulationInteracting with IL-6, IL-1β and CCL-5 3′-UTRsInhibits IL-6, IL-1β, CCL-5 and enhances Runx2, ALP, OCN, OPG biomarkersHong et al[49] 2016
miR-543Posttranscriptional regulationInteracting with TOB2 3′-UTRInhibits TOB2 and enhances Runx2, ALP, BSP, COL1A1 biomarkersGe et al[50] 2018
miR-22Posttranscriptional regulationInteracting with HDAC6 3′-UTRInhibits HDAC6 and enhances Runx2, OCN biomarkersYan et al[51] 2017
lncRNA TUG1Transcriptional regulationBinding with Lin28A proteinPromotes Lin28A and Runx2, ALP, OCN biomarkersHe et al[72] 2018
lncRNA MEG3Transcriptional regulationSuppresses BMP2 through binding with hnRNPI proteinInhibits BMP2 and Runx2, ALP, OCN biomarkersLiu et al[73] 2019
lncRNA ANCRTranscriptional regulationActivates Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway indirectlyActivates Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and inhibits ALP, BSP, DSPP, OCN, Runx2, Gsk3-β biomarkersJia et al[74] 2015
Posttranscriptional regulationlncRNA ANCR/miR-758/Notch2 axis “ceRNA”Activates Notch2-Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and inhibits ALP, Runx2, OSX biomarkersPeng et al[78] 2018
Epigenetic regulationInteracting with EZH2 and catalysis H3K27me3 of Runx2Inhibits Runx2 and ALP, OCN biomarkersZhu et al[82] 2013
lncRNA POIRPosttranscriptional regulationLncRNA POIR/miR 182/FoxO1 axis “ceRNA”Inhibits TCF-4-Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and promotes ALP, Runx2, COL1 biomarkersWang et al[77] 2016
lncRNA PCAT1Posttranscriptional regulationA feed-forward regulatory loop of lncPCAT1/miR-106a-5p/E2F5/ BMP2 axis “ceRNA”Activates BMP2 and ALP, Runx2, OSX biomarkersJia et al[79] 2019
lncRNA HIF1A‑AS2Posttranscriptional regulationBase complementary pairing with the mRNA of HIF-1αInhibits HIF-1α and ALP, Runx2 biomarkersChen et al[80] 2017
circRNA CDR1asPosttranscriptional regulationcircRNA CDR1as /miR-7/GDF5 axis “ceRNA”Enhances Smad1/5/8 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation and promotes ALP, BMP2, Runx2, OCN biomarkersLi et al[88] 2018
circRNA3140Posttranscriptional regulationCircRNA3140/miR-21/ACVR2B axis “ceRNA”Promotes ACVR2B and inhibits Runx2, OCN, SP7 biomarkersWang et al[89] 2019