Systematic Reviews
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2020.
World J Stem Cells. Jul 26, 2020; 12(7): 659-675
Published online Jul 26, 2020. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v12.i7.659
Table 2 Stem cell therapies
Stem cell therapyCell markersIndicationsMechanisms of action
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs)CD90+, CD105+, CD73+, CD44+, CD166+; CD34-, CD45-Severe radiation injury, chronic ulcers, venous leg ulcers, chronic fistulaeKim et al[61]: Promote angiogenesis, secrete growth factors and cytokines, and allow for human dermal fibroblast proliferation through direct cell contact and paracrine activation in the re-epithelialization phase; Trottier et al[62]: When combined with skin substitute with human extracellular matrix (ECM), ADSCs produce subcutaneous, dermal, and epidermal regenerated tissues
Bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMMSCs)CD105+, CD73+, CD90+; CD13-, CD34-, CD45-Severe radiation-associated wounds, chronic diabetic ulcers, advanced pressure ulcers in patients with spinal cord injury, and other intractable woundsHan et al[64]: Synthesize high amounts of collagen, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); Ren et al[76]: Induce proliferation and potent differentiation of cells under low oxygen tension with morphologic and cell cycle changes towards bone and fat; Stoff et al[77]: Increase tensile strength of postoperative incisional wounds; Maxson et al[46]: Secrete antimicrobial factors and promote host immune response
Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMNCs)CD133+, CD117+, CD34+Chronic ulcersAmato et al[15]: Secrete angiogenic growth factors to decrease local inflammation and promote vascularization
Epidermally-derived mesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs)CD90+, CD73+, CD105+/-; CD34-, CD271-Chronic ulcers, burns, generalized junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEMB)Yang et al[89]: Promote re-epithelialization in wound healing and regenerate functional epidermal layer
Fibroblast stem cells (FSCs)CD34+, CD11b+, CD13+, MHC II+, CD86+, CD45+, collagen-1+, procollagen-1+; CD44-Chronic ulcersAmato et al[15]: Increase cell proliferation, ECM deposition, wound contraction, and vascularization with additional secretion of growth factors and cytokines
Keratinocyte stem cells (KSCs)K5, K14, K15, integrins; CD34-Chronic ulcersLampert et al[94]: Enable the formation of the stratified keratinizing epidermis; Domaszewska-Szostek et al[26]: Proliferate, migrate, and differentiate during re-epithelialization with mechanical, antibacterial, and nutritious roles. Keratinocytes also interact with fibroblasts during the wound healing process and tissue regeneration. They perform autocrine secretion of IL-6 and nitric oxide, release growth factors, and help restore the barrier function of skin
Placental mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs)CD105+, CD73+, CD90+, CD44+; CD34-, CD45-Chronic venous ulcersFarivar et al[30]: Stimulate tissue regeneration and repair for improved wound healing
Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UMSCs)CD105+, CD73+, CD90+; CD34-, CD45-Chronic diabetic ulcersHashemi et al[37]: Secrete growth factors for wound healing and can differentiate into fibroblast, epithelial, and endothelial cells for wound healing
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs)Oct-4, Stage specific embryonic antigens (SSEAs)Intractable woundsGuenou et al[102]: Capable of differentiating into all three germ cell layers and can form functional human basal keratinocytes