Copyright ©The Author(s) 2020.
World J Stem Cells. Feb 26, 2020; 12(2): 110-122
Published online Feb 26, 2020. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v12.i2.110
Table 1  In vitro and in vivo studies with adipose derived stem/stromal cells spheroids for cartilage and bone engineering
TissueSpheroid production methodDefect/Animal modelMain outcomesRef.
CartilageSpontaneous formation in 48-well plateIn vitroFurther optimization of chondrogenic induction will be required[69]
CartilageScaffoldSubchondral bone in RabbitThe structure and function of regenerated tissue was similar to hyaline cartilage[70]
CartilageSpinner flaskTransplanted subcutaneously in MiceSpheroid culture is a viable method for chondrogenic differentiation and in vivo cartilage formation[52]
CartilagePorous scaffoldFemur trochlea on the femoropatellar groove in RabbitFormation of mature cartilage in vivo[71]
CartilageMicro-molded non-adhesive hydrogelIn vitroThe study confirms that spheroids mimic a stable cartilage tissue[35]
BoneHanging dropletMuscle pouch in femur in a RatSpheroids presented up-regulation of osteogenic markers, extracellular matrix mineralization and, when implanted in vivo, greater bone volume[63]
BoneOverlayIn vitroSpheroids presented calcium deposits and cells were positive for CD31 (classic endothelial marker)[72]
BonePellet cultureOsteochondral (femoral trochlear groove) in microminipigsSpheroids may induce regeneration of cartilage and subchondral bone[73]
BoneAgarose chipDorsal in MiceFormation of ectopic bone[74]
BoneElastin-like Polypeptide (ELP) and Polyethyleneimine (PEI) surfaceIn vitroSpheroids showed superior osteogenic differentiation than monolayer culture. Spheroids produced bone extracellular matrix and presented greater mineralization[64]
BoneCentrifugationIn vitroComposite spheroids enhanced expression of osteogenic genes and mineralization after fusion process[75]
BoneNon-adhesive surfacesIn vitroSpheroids up-regulated osteogenic markers, showed low mineral production and produced osteocalcin protein[65]