Copyright ©2009 Baishideng.
World J Stem Cells. Dec 31, 2009; 1(1): 55-66
Published online Dec 31, 2009. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v1.i1.55
Table 2 Various fabrication techniques to achieve nanotopography
Fabrication techniqueAdvantagesDrawbacks
Laser depositionUniform distribution of pore size, simple and fastReduced resolution and poor surface finish
Self assemblyCan generate fibrous networks capable of supporting cells in three dimensions. Cell-seeding problems associated with using prefabricated nanofibrous scaffolds eliminated owing to spontaneous assemblyLack mechanical strength, Limited amphiphilic materials, random and very short nanofibers
LithographyRelatively good resolutionTime consuming and expensive.
ElectrospinningThe properties of electrospun nanofibers, such as fiber diameter, can be controlled readily via manipulation of spinning parameters. Capable of mimicking the stem cell nicheElectrospinning yields a flat mat that has limited three dimensionality and suffers from cell infiltration problems because of the small pore size of the mats
Phase separationA nanofibrous (fibers with diameters of 50-500 nm) three-dimensional scaffold can be constructed. Has controllable high porosity, surface-to- volume ratios, and well as defined mechanical propertiesNanofiber distribution and uniformity is subject to the controllability of the processing