Copyright ©2009 Baishideng.
World J Stem Cells. Dec 31, 2009; 1(1): 55-66
Published online Dec 31, 2009. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v1.i1.55
Table 1 Different types of stem cells, their properties, and functions
Stem cell typePropertiesFunctions
MSCsMultipotent and pluripotent. Bone marrow is the major source of MSCMSCs are capable of differentiating into bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, marrow stroma, and other tissue types
ESCsDerived from an early stage embryo and can differentiate into derivatives of all three primary germ layers. ESCs are multipotent and pluripotentCan differentiate into brain and nervous system cells, insulin producing cells of the pancreas, bone cells, hematopoietic cells, endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes
ASCsMultipotent, oligopotent, or unipotent progenitor cells. Derived from a more mature tissue, such as the umbilical cord, bone marrow, or skinTo treat leukemia and related bone/blood cancers through bone marrow transplants
HSCsFound in the bone marrow. MultipotentAll types of blood cells
iPSDerived from epithelial cells. PluripotentThe iPS cell lines could be differentiated into heart muscle and neuronal cells, in addition to basic cell types (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm)
Mammary stem cellsIsolated from human and mouse tissueGrowth of mammary glands
Endothelial stem cellsMultipotent cells found in the bone marrowCan differentiate into endothelial cells, the cells that make up the lining of blood vessels