Copyright ©The Author(s) 2024.
World J Gastroenterol. Jan 14, 2024; 30(2): 128-136
Published online Jan 14, 2024. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v30.i2.128
Table 1 Summary of current knowledge and remaining knowledge gaps within the liver-heart-kidney connection
What is currently known
Remaining knowledge gaps
Pathophysiological mechanisms behind the onset and progression of HRS[1-5]Exact timing and sequelae of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy in the setting of HRS[10-25]
Targeted prevention and interventional strategies to prevent the onset and terminate the progression of HRS[1-5]Potential pathophysiological mechanisms that interlink the onset and progression of cardiac dysfunction in HRS[11,18,23,27-34,37]
Optimal screening markers and imaging modalities in the clinical setting to diagnose cardiac disease in cirrhosis and HRS, and to prognosticate outcomes[9,38-47]
How can specific interventions like volume expansion using albumin and TIPS improve HRS-associated cardiac dysfunctions?[31,48-58]