Copyright ©The Author(s) 2021.
World J Gastroenterol. Jul 21, 2021; 27(27): 4322-4341
Published online Jul 21, 2021. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v27.i27.4322
Table 1 Studies evaluating intraoperative pancreas radiofrequency ablation
Study type
Outcome measure
Giardino et al[16], 2013Retrospective107OSRFA 1st line: 14.7 mo RFA + adjuvant: 25.6 moMortality: 1.8%; morbidity: 28%
Girelli et al[18], 2013Prospective100OS and DSS20 and 23 moMortality 3%; morbidity 24%
Girelli et al[14], 2010Prospective50Safety and feasibility-Mortality 2%; morbidity 24%
Spiliotis et al[15], 2007Retrospective25OSOS: 33 mo1Mortality: 0%; morbidity: 23%
Wu et al[13], 2006Prospective16Pain relief50% pain relief90-d mortality: 25%;
Matsui et al[12], 2000Prospective29OSOS: 3 moMortality: 10%
Table 2 Studies evaluating microwave ablation of pancreatic cancer
Major adverse events
Lygidakis et al[23], 200715Up to 22 moOpenN/ANo
Carrafiello et al[21], 20131080% at 1 yr5 open, 5 percutaneousUS, US/CT2
Vogl et al[24], 201820N/APercutaneousCTNo
Ierardi et al[22], 20185N/APercutaneousUSNo
Table 3 Studies evaluating intraoperative irreversible electroporation of pancreatic cancer
Median OS(mo)
Major adverse events
Paiella et al[53], 2015107.5US20%
Martin et al[48], 201520024.9US22%
Kluger et al[52], 2015507.7Not reported38%
Lambert et al[54], 20152110.2Not reported24%
Yan et al[57], 201625Not reportedUS16%
Vogel et al[50], 20171516US53%
Huang et al[47], 20187022.6US4%
Yang et al[105], 20207453% (3 yr)1US12%
He et al[106], 20203653.5% (2 yr)2US5%
He et al[49], 202016716USN/A
Table 4 Studies evaluating percutaneous IRE in pancreatic cancer
Median OS from IRE
Major adverse events
Belfiore et al[64], 20152013.951 moCT0%
Narayanan et al[61], 20175014.2 moCT20%
Zhang et al[58], 201721N/ACT/US0%
Scheffer et al[65], 20172511 moCT40%
Månsson et al[59], 20192413.3 moUS25%
Flak et al[60], 20193310.7 moUS20%
Ruarus et al[62], 20205010 moCT42%
Ma et al[51], 20203319.8 moCT9%
Table 5 Active pancreas irreversible electroporation clinical trials (source:
Estimated completion
An open-label, multicenter, prospective study of IRE (Nano Knife) combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy in patients with LAPCShanghai, China, 2020
Ablation of unresectable LAPC with IRE systemTeaneck, New Jersey, United States, 2023
Chemotherapy followed by irreversible electroporation in patients with unresectable LAPCAalborg, Denmark, 2024
Chemotherapy and IRE in the treatment of advanced pancreatic adenocarcinomaLouisville, Kentucky, United States, 2023
PANFIRE-3 trial: Assessing safety and efficacy of IRE + Nivolumab + CpG for metastatic pancreatic cancerAmsterdam, North-Holland, Netherlands, 2022
Outcomes of ablation of unresectable pancreatic cancer using the nanoknife IRE systemBaltimore, Maryland, United States, 2021
Immunotherapy and IRE in the treatment of advanced pancreatic adenocarcinomaLouisville, Kentucky, United States, 2022
A study of the use of IRE in pancreatic ductal cancerToronto, Ontario, Canada, 2021
Safety and efficacy of IRE for LAPCSeoul, Korea, Republic of, 2019
IRE (Nano Knife) for the treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinomaPoitiers, France, 2020
IRE for inoperable hepatic and pancreatic malignancyHong Kong, 2021
Phase II/III of randomized controlled clinical research on IRE synchronous chemotherapy for LAPCGuangzhou, Guangdong, China, 2021
Anti-tumor immunity induced by IRE of unresectable pancreatic cancerGuangzhou, Guangdong, China, 2025
A pivotal study of safety and effectiveness of Nano Knife IRE for stage 3 pancreatic cancerUSA, Multicentre, 2023
Immunologic signatures following surgery for pancreatic cancerDurham, North Carolina, United States, 2027
Table 6 Studies evaluating percutaneous liver ablation in metastatic pancreatic cancer
Median OS from ablation
Major adverse events
Park et al[77], 2012RFA3414 moUSNot reported
Hua et al[78], 2017RFA10211.4 moUS9.8%
Lee et al[79], 2020RFA9412 moUS (n = 91), CT (n = 3)8.5%
Bailey et al[80], 2019Mixed209.7 moMixedN/A
Table 7 Transarterial chemoembolization in liver-metastatic pancreatic cancer
Median OS from TACE
Vogl et al[82], 201511219.2 mocTACE after mitomycin C, cisplatin, and gemcitabine chemoperfusion
Azizi et al[83], 20113216 mocTACE after mitomycin C, cisplatin, and gemcitabine chemoperfusion
Sun et al[84], 20172723 moChemoperfusion with gemcitabine, oxaplatin, and irinotecan plus embolization with Lipiodol + pirarubicin or DEB with pirarubicin
Table 8 Transarterial radioembolization in liver-metastatic pancreatic cancer
Median OS from TARE
Michl et al[96], 2014199 moResin microspheres
Kim et al [97], 201611612.5 moResin microspheres
Kim et al[99], 20171246 moResin microspheres
Kim et al[98], 20191338.1 moResin microspheres
Kayaleh et al[100], 2020267 moGlass microspheres