Copyright ©The Author(s) 2020.
World J Gastroenterol. Apr 14, 2020; 26(14): 1580-1593
Published online Apr 14, 2020. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v26.i14.1580
Table 1 Gastrointestinal cancer stem cells markers
Tumor typeCancer stem cell phenotypeRef.
EsophagealCD44+, CD90, CD133+, ALDH1+[10,11]
GastricCD44+, ALDH1+[9,12]
PancreaticCD24+, CD44+, CD133+, EpCAM+, ALDH+[13-15]
LiverCD44+, CD90+, CD133+, EpCAM+[16-19]
ColorectalCD24+, CD44+, CD49f, CD133+, EpCAM+, ALDH1[16,20,21]
Table 2 Targeting gastrointestinal cancer stem cell surface markers by monoclonal antibodies
Targeting approachCancer modelEffectsRef.
RG7576 mAb against CD44Solid tumorsInhibited tumor growth and induced activation of macrophages[23-26]
SWA11 against CD24Colorectal cancerReduced tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis[27,28]
G7 mAbs against CD24Liver cancerSuppressed tumor growth[29-31]
Catumaxomab (Removab®) mAb targeting EpCAM (CD326)Gastric, colon cancers, pancreasActivated immune cells (NK cells, macrophages, and T cells); prolonged survival period[32-35]
Table 3 Targeting gastrointestinal cancer stem cell by natural killer cells, chimeric antigen receptor expressed on T cells and dendritic cells based vaccines
Targeting approachCancer modelRef.
CIK cells via NKG2D ligands expressed on CSCHepatocellular carcinoma[56]
NK cells via NKG2D ligands expressed on CSCPancreatic cancer[57]
CAR-T for CSC antigen ASB4Colon cancer[59]
CAR-T for EGFR and CAR-T for CSC antigen CD133Cholangiocarcinoma[60]
CAR-T for CSC antigen CD24Pancreatic adenocarcinoma[61]
DC loaded with Panc-1 CSC lysatePancreatic cancer[62]
DC loaded with total mRNA from gastric CSCGastric cancer[63]
Table 4 List of approved drugs targeting immune checkpoints for gastrointestinal cancers
TargetDrugCommercial nameIndication
PD-1NivolumabOpdivoHepatocellular carcinoma, colorectal cancer with MSI-H
PD-1PembrolizumabKeytrudaGastric cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, colorectal cancer, solid tumors with MSI-H
CTLA-4 and PD-1Ipilimumab plus nivolumabYervoy plus OpdivoColorectal cancer with MSI-H