Copyright ©The Author(s) 2018.
World J Gastroenterol. Dec 28, 2018; 24(48): 5418-5432
Published online Dec 28, 2018. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v24.i48.5418
Table 1 Clinical vaccination trials focused on colorectal cancer patients
Target typeTarget moleculeVaccination strategyTherapyNo. of CRC PatientsClinical responseRef.
TAACEAAltered peptide loaded on DC10/122 CR, 2 SD, 1 MR, 7 PD[8]
TAACEACEA peptides pulsed DC102 SD, 8 PD[9]
TAACEACEA peptides pulsed DC107 had CTL increase[10]
TAAMAGEMAGE-A-pulsed DC2121 PD[15]
TAAMAGEsynthesized helper/killer-hybrid epitope long peptide (H/K-HELP) of MAGE-A41SD[14]
TAAMUC1MUC1-mannan fusion proteinChemo- therapy182 SD, 16 PD[17]
TAAMUC1100-amino acid synthetic MUC1 peptide with Poly-ICLC3920 responders (IgG), 19 non-responders[18]
TAAMUC1irradiated allogeneic colorectal carcinoma cell lines with GM-CSF-producing bystander cell line (K562)94 CR, 5 PD[19]
TAASurvivinsurvivin-2B peptide151 MR, 3 SD, 11 PD[21]
TAAWT1HLA-A or HLA-DR restricted peptides on DCsChemo- therapy33 SD[22]
TAARNF43, TOMM34peptides,with Montanide ISA 51Chemo- therapy2116 SD[29]
TAARNF43, TOMM34HLA-A*2402-restricted peptidesChemo- therapy2213 CTL induction[31]
TAARNF43, TOMM34Peptides with Montanide ISA 51246 SD, 18 PD[30]
TAA + VEGFRRNF43, TOMM34, FOXM1, MELK, HJURP, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2HLA-A2402- restricted peptides with Montanide ISA 51Chemo- therapy303 PR, 15 SD, 12 PD[32]
TAA + VEGFRRNF43, TOMM34, KOC1, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2HLA-A*2402-restricted peptides with Montanide ISA 51191 CR, 6 SD, 12 PD[33]
PPV TAAcypB, Ick, SART 1-3, ART42-4 HLA-A24-restricted Peptides matching to patient’s pre-vaccination immune response with Montanide ISA 51101 PR, 1 SD, 8 PD[34]
PPV TAASART3, Lck, WHS, HNR, MRP3, PAP, EZH2, CEA, PSCA, UBE, Her2/neu, PSA, CypB2-4 HLA-A24- or HLA-A2 restricted Peptides matching to patient’s pre-vaccination immune response with Montanide ISA 51Chemo- therapy71 SD, 6 PD[35]
PPV TAASART2-3, Lck, MRP3, EIF4EBP, WHSC2, CypB, CEA, UBE, Her2/neu,2-4 HLA-A24- or HLA-A2 restricted Peptides matching to patient’s pre-vaccination immune response with Montanide ISA 51Chemo- therapy143 MR, 3 SD, 8 PD[36]
NeoantigenAIM2(-1), HT001(-1), TAF1B(-1)Frameshift peptides with Montanide ISA 512216 immune response (CTL/IgG induction)[52]
NeoantigenKRAS13-mer ras peptide with Detox adjuvant101 SD, 2 cytotoxic activity[62]
NeoantigenKRAS13-mer ras peptide with Detox adjuvant74 remained with no evidence of disease[64]
NeoantigenKRAS13-mer ras peptide with Il-2 or GM-CSF or both384 SD, 34 PD[66]
Table 2 Current clinical vaccination studies including colorectal cancer patients
Target typeTarget moleculeVaccination strategyTherapyNumber of patientsTrial identifier
TAACEAalphavirus replicon (VRP) encoding CEA12NCT01890213
TAACEAETBX-011 ad-CEA, ALT-803 (IL-15)3NCT03127098
TAACEAanti-CEA CAR-T cells18NCT03682744
TAACEAanti-CEA CAR-T cells5NCT02850536
TAACEAanti-CEA CAR-T cells, SIR-Sphere8NCT02416466
TAAHer22 Her2 peptides in Montanide ISA 72036NCT01376505
TAAHer2/neuB-Cell and monocytes with HER2/neu antigen9NCT03425773
TAABrachyury, CEA, MUC1ETBX-051; adenoviral brachyury vaccine, ETBX-061; adenoviral MUC1 vaccine, ETBX-011; adenoviral CEA vaccine32NCT03384316
TAA7 cancer testis antigens6 synthetic peptides in MontanideStandard-of care maintenance15NCT03391232
Immune stimulation, TAAMUC1activated CIK and CD3-MUC1 bispecific antibodycryotherapy90NCT03524274
TAAhTERTINO-1400 or INO-1401 alone or in combination with INO-901293NCT02960594
TAAMUC1anti-MUC1 CAR-pNK cells10NCT02839954
TAAMUC1MUC1 peptide-poly-ICLC110NCT02134925
TAAEpCAMCAR T Cells targeting EpCAM60NCT03013712
Immune checkpoint, TAAPD-1, p53Pembrolizumab, modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccine expressing p5319NCT02432963
Neoantigenframeshift-derived neoantigen-loaded DC25NCT01885702
Neoantigenpersonalized neoepitope yeast-based vaccine, YE-NEO-00116NCT03552718
NeoantigenmRNA-based vaccine targeting neoantigens64NCT03480152
NeoantigenADXS-NEO (Advaxis NEO expressing personalized tumor antigens)48NCT03265080
Neoantigenrasanti-KRAS G12 V mTCRCyclophosphamide, Fludarabine, Aldesleukin110NCT03190941
Immune checkpointPD-L1Avelumab, autologous dendritic cells33NCT03152565
Immune checkpointPD-1Pembrolizumab, GVAX (allogeneic colon cancer GM-CSF secreting cells)Cyclophosphamide17NCT02981524
Immune checkpointPD-L1Atezolizumab, Imprime PGG (PAMP recognized by innate immune effector cells)Regorafenib/ Isatuximab/ Bevacizumab120NCT03555149
Immune checkpointA2aR, A2bRAB928 (A2aR and A2bR antagonist)FOLFOX98NCT03720678
Immune checkpoint, TAAPD-1, CEA, MUC-1Nivolumab, MVA-BN-CV301 (modified vaccinia Ankara-Bavarian Nordic encoding CEA, MUC1, B7-1, ICAM-1 and LFA-3)FOLFOX78NCT03547999
Immune checkpoint, TAAPD-L1Atezolizumab, RO7198457 (mRNA-based individualized, TAAs vaccine)567NCT03289962
Immune checkpoint, TAAPD-L1, CEAAvelumab + Ad-CEAFOLFOX, Bevacizumab, Capecitabine81NCT03050814
Immune checkpoint, TAA, Immune stimulationCEA, Her2/neu, Brachyury, MUC1, RAS, NK cells ICIAldoxorubicin, ETBX-011, ETBX-021, ETBX-051, ETBX-061, GI-4000, GI-6207, GI-6301, haNK, avelumab, HCI, ALT-803Capecitabine, Cetuximab, Cyclophosphamide, Fluorouracil, Leucovorin, Nab-paclitaxel, Oxaliplatin, Regorafenib, SBRT, Trastuzumab332NCT03563157
Immune checkpoint, Mutated proteinsPD-1Personalized peptides, Pembrolizumab60NCT02600949
Immune stimulationGVAX (allogeneic colon cancer GM-CSF secreting cells)Cyclophosphamide, SGI-110 (DNA Methyltransferase Inhibitor)18NCT01966289
Immune stimulationGVAX (allogeneic colon cancer GM-CSF secreting cells)15NCT01952730
Immune stimulationOncoVAX (non-dividing tumor cells)Surgery550NCT02448173
Immune stimulationAutologous or allogeneic immune stimulatory tumor cells50NCT00722228
Immune stimulationautologous dendritic cells loaded with autologous tumour homogenate + IL-219NCT02919644
Immune stimulationautologous dendritic cells loaded with tumor antigens58NCT01348256
Immune stimulationautologous dendritic cells loaded with tumor lysate antigens30NCT03214939
Oncolytic virusGL-ONC1 oncolytic vaccinia virus, which disrupts nonessential genes and expression of the foreign gene expression36NCT02714374
Oncolytic virus, Immune checkpointPD-L1Talimogene Laherparepvec, Atezolizumab36NCT03256344