Copyright ©The Author(s) 2018.
World J Gastroenterol. Nov 28, 2018; 24(44): 4979-4988
Published online Nov 28, 2018. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v24.i44.4979
Table 1 Glutathione depletion and the intestinal calcium absorption
Oxidative stress markersEffect on intestinal Ca2+ absorption
BSO↓GSH↓Ca2+ transfer from lumen-to-blood
MEN↓GSH ↑ROS and protein carbonyl ↑Mn2+-SOD and GPX Mitochondrial dysfunction↓Ca2+ transfer from lumen-to-blood ↓IAP and PMCA1b activities
NaDOC↓GSH ↑ROS↓Intestinal Ca2+absorption
Mitochondrial swelling.↓mRNA PMCA1b
↑SOD, CAT and GPX↓PMCA1b, CBD28k and NCX1 protein expression
↑NO• ↑iNOS protein
FRD↓GSH ↑.O2↓Intestinal Ca2+ absorption
↑protein carbonyl and nitrotyrosine content↓IAP activity
↓SOD and CAT↓TRPV6, PMCA1b, CBD9k, CLDN 2, CLDN12 and VDR protein expression
Table 2 Antioxidants that preserve/ restore the inhibition of intestinal Ca2+ absorption caused by glutathione depletion
DrugsNormalized OS markersEffect on inhibition of ICaANormalized component of ICaAApoptosis markersReferences
GSH monoesterGSH totalRestorationTolosa de Talamoni et al[21]
MELGSH, ˙O2− Protein carbonyl SOD, CAT and GPX activities iNOS gene and protein expressionPrevention restorationPMCA1b, CBD9k, NCX1, CLDN 2 and CLD 12 protein expression↓TUNEL index ↓Caspase 3 activity/protein expressionCarpentieri et al[80] Areco et al[81]
QTGSH total. GPX activityPrevention↓Caspase 3 activity ↓FAS, ↓FASL. Blocks mit swellingMarchionatti et al[52]
GLNGSH, ˙O2. Protein carbonyl SOD and CAT activityPrevention restorationCBD28k and PMCA1b protein expression.↓TUNEL index. ↓FAS, ↓FASL ↓Caspase-3 activityMoine et al[88]
NARGSH, ˙O2− NO• Protein carbonyl and nitrotyrosine content. SOD and CAT activityPreventionIAP activity (partially) PMCA1b, CBD9k, NCX1, VDR, CLDN2 and CLD12 protein expressionRodríguez et al[58]
UDCAGSH, NO• protein carbonyl SOD activity iNOS protein expressionIncrease restorationIAP activity ↑PMCA1b, CBD28k, NCX1, VDR gene and protein expression↓Mit swelling ↓FAS, ↓FASL gene/protein content Caspase 8 protein content Caspase 3 activityRodríguez et al[22,48]