Copyright ©The Author(s) 2018.
World J Gastroenterol. Nov 7, 2018; 24(41): 4622-4634
Published online Nov 7, 2018. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v24.i41.4622
Table 1 Findings on the role of damage-associated molecular patterns in human and experimental inflammatory bowel diseases
DAMPHuman IBDExperimental IBD
CalprotectinIncreased levels in the intestinal lumen and stools in both UC and CD[36,38,39]-
LactoferrinMostly correlates with colonic inflammation[41]Beneficial therapeutic effects in colitis models[93,94]
CalreticulinRelated to inflammatory activity[44]-
HMGB1Increased levels in the stools of both adult and paediatric IBD patients[113]Increased levels in DSS-induced colitis mice[52]
IL-1 alphaIncreased levels in the lamina propria of both UC and CD[59]Associated with colonic inflammation initiation and amplification[60,61]
IL-33Increased levels in the inflamed intestinal mucosa of IBD patients, especially in UC[66,67]Increased levels in chemically induced colitis[66]; beneficial effects upon ST2 blockage[121]
ATP-P2X7Overexpressed in IBD patients, particularly in CD[74]Increases intestinal inflammation in chemically induced colitis[75]; P2X7-deficient mice essentially do not develop intestinal inflammation[74]
S 100 proteinsIncreased faecal[95-98], mucosal[99], and serum[99-101] levels
HSPsIncreased levels[102-105]Beneficial therapeutic effects in colitis models[106]
GalectinsIncreased serum levels in UC and CD[107]Galectins 1 and 2 show anti-inflammatory action[108,109]
Galectin 4: Antibody blockage reduces inflammation[110]
HyaluronanECM components accumulate in the colon of IBD patients[82], particularly in UC[115]ECM components accumulate in experimental colitis tissues[83]