Copyright ©The Author(s) 2018.
World J Gastroenterol. Oct 21, 2018; 24(39): 4428-4435
Published online Oct 21, 2018. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v24.i39.4428
Table 1 Nanotechnology based drug delivery systems for colorectal cancer targeting
SystemChemotherapeutic agentSignificanceRef.
NanoparticlesResveratrol (RSV)Sustained release of RSV (over 72 h), and drug solubility enhancement[17]
Micellar delivery systemDocetaxelEnhanced the efficacy of hydrophobic chemotherapy and reduced systemic toxicity[18]
Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS)Sunitinib malateEnhancement of in vitro dissolution rate and anticancer potential of drugs possessing low water solubility such as sunitinib malate[19]
Small molecule-based theranostic system, Gal-DoxDoxorubicinDrug localization and site of action can be monitored[20]
Polymeric micellesTanshinone IIA (TAN)Improved efficacy of anticancer drugs and promoted the growth of beneficial commensal flora in the gut[21]
Pressure-sensitive nanogels5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)Higher 5-FU intracellular accumulation and a significant cell death extension by apoptosis[22]
MicrospheresAtorvastatin and celecoxibSynergistic effect on colon cancer prevention and inhibition[23]
MicrobeadsDoxorubicinExhibited reduction-responsive character, release the DOX in reducing environments due to cleavage of the disulfide linkers[24]
Carboxymethyl dextran (CMD) chitosan nanoparticlesSmall interfering RNASignificant changes of Epithelial mesenchymal transition genes and apoptosis[25]
LiposomesApatinibcRGD-modified liposomes displayed greater apoptosis[26]
Table 2 Overview of clinical trials of colorectal cancer
TherapyAgentClinical statusRef.
Five peptides combination with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapyOxaliplatinPhase II[34]
Panitumumab with infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4) vs FOLFOX4 aloneFluorouracil, OxaliplatinPhase III trial[35]
Checkpoint inhibitorsNivolumab and pembrolizumabPhase 2 study[36]
Combination vaccine treatment of five therapeutic epitope-peptidesFluorouracil, irinotecan or oxaliplatinPhase I[37]
Autologous dendritic cell based adoptive immunotherapy-Phase I-II[38]
Autologous antigen-activated dendritic cells in the treatment of CRC-Phase I-II[39]
Adjuvant chemotherapy (FOLFOX)5-fluorouracil (FU)/leucovorin (LV)Phase III[40]