Copyright ©The Author(s) 2017.
World J Gastroenterol. Feb 28, 2017; 23(8): 1328-1337
Published online Feb 28, 2017. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v23.i8.1328
Table 1 Definitions
Upper gastrointestinal bleedingGI bleeding originating proximal to the ligament of Treitz (esophagus, stomach and duodenum)
Lower gastrointestinal bleedingGI bleeding originating distal to the ligament of Treitz (small bowel and colon)
Occult gastrointestinal bleedingGI bleeding that is not visible to the patient or physician, resulting in either a positive fecal occult blood test or iron-deficiency anemia
HematemesisVomiting of blood or coffee-ground-like material
HematocheziaPassage of fresh blood per anus
MelenaPassage of black, tarry stools per anus
Table 2 Causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding based on age
Infants2-5 yearsOlder
Esophageal varicesMallory-Weiss syndrome
Mallory-Weiss syndromeEsophageal varices
StomachGastritis from stressGastritisDieulafoy lesion
Gastric ulcerPHG
Gastric varicesHemobilia
Duodenal ulcer
Variable locationVitamin K deficiencyCaustic ingestionsPolyps
SepsisForeign bodiesCrohn’s disease
Trauma (NG tubes)NSAIDs useTelangiectasia
CMPAAortoenteric fistula
Coagulation disorders
Caustic ingestions
Foreign bodies
NSAIDs use
Table 3 Causes of lower gastrointestinal bleeding based on age
Infants2-5 yearsOlder
Non-specific colitisPolypsAnal fissure
Anal fissureAnal fissureInfectious Enterocolitis
Milk allergyInfectious enterocolitisPolyps
Duplication of bowelIntussusceptionInflammatory bowel disease
VolvulusMeckel’s diverticulumLymphonodular hyperplasia
Hirschsprung’s diseaseHenoch-Schonlein purpuraHenoch-Schonlein purpura
Necrotizing enterocolitisHemolytic-uremic syndromeAngiodysplasia
Bleeding diathesisLymphonodular hyperplasiaHemolytic-uremic syndrome
AngiodysplasiaBleeding diathesis