Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016.
World J Gastroenterol. Oct 7, 2016; 22(37): 8257-8270
Published online Oct 7, 2016. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i37.8257
Table 1 Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided radiofrequency ablation on pancreatic tumours
Ref.nIndicationMean size mm (range)RF deviceThermokineticsRF sessionsOutcomeSurvival (range)Complications
Armellini et al[31], 20051PNET2018 G Needle electrodeNANAComplete ablation-No complication
Arcidiacono et al[32], 201222Locally advanced PC36CTP18 W (heating)NASignificant volume reduction in 16 patients6 mo1Early:
(23-54)650 psi (cooling)(P = 0.07)(1-12)3 transient abdominal pain
107 (10-360) sTechnical failure in 6 patients1 minor duodenal bleeding
2 jaundice
1 duodenal stricture
1 cystic fluid collection
Rossi et al[33], 20141PNET9Habib EUS RFA10-15 W1Complete thermal ablation-No complication
360 sNo recurrence
(34 mo follow-up)
Weigt et al[34], 20141IPMN10Habib EndoHBP8 WNA2 cm ablation-Mild acute pancreatitis
(recurrent bleeding)90 sNo rebleeding
(10 wk follow-up)
Pai et al[27], 20158Mucinous cyst (4)41 (24-70)Habib EUS RFA5-25 W4.5-2 mild abdominal pain
IPMN (1)3590-120 s(2-7)2 cyst resolution
Microcystic adenoma (1)204 cyst reduction
PNET (2)27 (15-40)(48 % reduction)
2 PNET with vascularity change
Lakhtakia et al[25], 20153Insulinoma1818 G Needle electrode50 WNANo recurrent hypoglycemia-No complication
(Hypoglycemia)(14-22)(STARmed)10-15 s(12 mo follow-up)
Song et al[28], 20166Locally advanced PC (4)3818 G20-50 W1.3Necrosis at the ablation siteNA2 mild abdominal pain
Metastatic PC (2)(30-90)Needle electrode10 s(1-2)
Table 2 Endoscopic radiofrequency ablation for biliary strictures
Ref.nIndicationStricture length (mm)Thermokinetics power - timeRF sessionsTechnical successStricture diameter before RF (mm)Stricture diameter after RF (mm)Stent patency (d)Median survival (mo)Complications
Pozsár et al[39], 20115Occluded SEMS1510 W - 120 s2 (1-3)100%24.762-No complication
(malignant strictures)(9-236)
Monga et al[40], 20111CC155 W - 120 s1100%----No complication
Steel et al[41], 20112116 PC-7-10 W2 (1- 4)100%0 (0-1)4 (3-6)76%-1 hyperamylasemia
6 Klatskin/intrahepatic CC120 sat 90-d FU2 cholecystitis
1 rigors
Yoon et al[42], 20121CHD CC-7 W - 90 s2100%----No complication
Mavrogenis et al[43], 20121Intrahepatic adenoma---100%-----
Dzeletovic et al[44], 20121Ampullary adenoma101-100%----CBD stenosis
with CBD invasion(Complete ablation)
Sonpal et al[45], 20121Occluded SEMS (Klatskin CC)-8 - 10 W2100%--90--
90 s
Lewis et al[46], 201254 CC-7-10 W1 (1-2)100%----No complication
1 colon met.90 s
Watson et al[47], 201233 Klatskin CC27-10 W36No complication
90 s
Kallis et al[48], 201511Occluded SEMS:--1100%--146-No complication
6 PC/3 CC(1-2)
2 liver met
Topazian et al[49], 20131Intrahepatic adenoma10 W - 90 s1100%----Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm
(Complete ablation)
Figueroa-Barojas et al[50], 20132011 CC/7 PC15.27-10 W-100%1.75.2100%5 pain
1 IPMN/1 Met.(3.5-33)120 s(0.5-3.4)(2.6-9)at 30-d FU1 mild pancreatitis and cholecystitis
Alis et al[51], 201310CC2010 W - 120 s3 (3-4)100%1.55270-2 mild pancreatitis
Lui et al[52], 20131Occluded SEMS10 W - 150 s1100%--60-No complication
(Klatskin CC)
Law et al[53], 20132PC-10 W - 120 s1100%-----
Tal et al[54], 2014122 intrahepatic CC-8-10 W1100%---8.53 hemobilia (2 deaths)
8 Klatskin IV CC60-90 s(1-5)3 cholangitis
2 GB can.
1 gastric Met
Table 3 Endoscopic radiofrequency ablation for biliary strictures (continuation)
Ref.nIndicationStricture length (mm)Thermokinetics power - timeRF sessionsTechnical successStricture diameter before RF (mm)Stricture diameter after RF (mm)Stent patency (d)Survival (mo)Complications
Hu et al[55], 201494 postsurgical-10 W - 90 s1100%----2 abdominal pain
3 liver transplant(5 complete resolution2 transient leucocytosis
2 chronic inflam4 improvement)1 mild pancreatitis
Uppal et al[56], 20142Prehepatic transplant---100%---19-35 mo FU1 hemobilia
1 LHD-CHD CC(No malignancy in explant)
Strand et al[57], 20141613 Klatskin CC-7 W - 90 s-100%---9.6Occurrence/month:
1 intrahepatic CCStent occlusion 0.06
2 extrahepatic CCStent migration 0.02
Cholangitis 013
Hepatic abscess 0.02
Dolak et al[58], 20145850 Klatskin CC-10 W - 180 s1100%--17010.61 partial liver infarction
4 PC(1-5)5 cholangitis
1GB can2 cholangiosepsis
1 met3 hemobilia
1 HCC1 GB empyema
1 HCC and CC1 hepatic coma (1 death)
1 left bundle branch block
Mukund et al[59], 20148Occluded SEMS:--1100%--114No complication
4 GB cancer(1-2)
2 CC/2 PC
Mehendiratta et al[60], 20151Ampullary adenoma-7 W - 90 s-100%----No complication
with CBD invasion(Complete ablation)
Musquer et al[61], 20151Occluded SEMS-10 W - 90 s-100%--180--
Sharaiha et al[62], 20156945 CC14.58 W - 90 s1100%24.996%15 for PC1 pancreatitis
19 PC(3.5-60)(1-4)at 30-d FU18 for CC2 cholecystitis
1 GB cancer1 hemobilia
1 gastric cancer3 abdominal pain
3 liver met
Laquière et al[63], 201512CC19.510 W - 90 s1100%---121 sepsis
4 Bismuth I(10-35)(1-3)1 cholangitis
3 Bismuth II
2 Bismuth III
3 Bismuth IV
Atar et al[64], 201521Occluded SEMS:-10 W - 90 s1100%--62%--
11 PC/7 CC(1-5)at 90-d FU
1 GB can/2 liver met