Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016.
World J Gastroenterol. Sep 7, 2016; 22(33): 7431-7439
Published online Sep 7, 2016. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i33.7431
Table 1 Published articles which refer to independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis of early gastric cancer after 2001
Ref.YearCountryNumber of patientsIndependent parameters which affect LN metastasisOdds ratio95%CI
Folli et al[40]2001Japanm: 285, sm: 215Tumor size1.341.13-1.59
Tumor depth (pT1b vs pT1a)2.291.56-3.36
Histological differentiation (Diffuse vs Intestinal)5.702.88-11.31
Histological differentiation (Mixed vs Intestinal)4.191.89-9.32
Kodama Type (Pen A vs Not Pen A)1.361.17-1.58
Amioka et al[26]2002Japansm: 139Lymphatic invasion3.481.17-10.40
VEGF-C (positive vs negative)4.181.38-12.70
Abe et al[41]2002Japanm: 136, sm: 178Gender (female vs male)3.231.33-7.88
Tumor size (≥ 20 mm vs < 20 mm)3.391.26-9.13
Tumor depth (pT1b vs pT1a)4.941.49-16.27
Lymphovascular invasion7.543.01-19.04
Matsuzaki et al[42]2003Japansm: 92Volume of lesions1.272.49-13.51
Abe et al[43]2003Japansm: 104Gender (female vs male)2.901.2-6.9
Tumor depth (pT1b vs pT1a)29.203.9-216.3
Lymphatic invasion50.808.1-317.3
Song et al[21]2004South Koream: 120Lymphatic invasion21.3910.41-43.95
Tumor depth (sm massive vs sm shallow)2.561.30-5.03
Park et al[22]2004South Koreasm: 105Tumor size (> 40 mm)4.801.05-22.06
Tumor depth (> 2000 μm)6.811.36-34.17
Hyung et al[44]2004South Koream: 295, sm: 271Histological differentiation (Undifferentiated vs Differentiated)2.281.14-4.56
Tumor size (≥ 20 mm vs < 20 mm)1.0451.36-5.93
Tumor depth (pT1b vs pT1a)3.681.67-8.13
Lymphovascular invasion26.5612.77-55.23
Son et al[45]2005South Koreasm: 248Lymphatic invasion21.3910.41-43.96
Tumor depth (sm massive vs sm shallow)2.561.30-5.03
Lo et al[46]2007Taiwanm: 272, sm: 203Lymphovascular invasion8.614.43-16.72
Tumor depth (pT1b vs pT1a)3.051.47-6.33
Tumor size1.681.13-2.51
Kunisaki et al[47]2007Japansm: 615Tumor size (40 mm < 80 mm vs < 20 mm)2.711.31-5.61
Tumor size (≥ 80 mm vs < 20 mm)3.201.02-10.09
Lymphatic invasion15.929.52-26.63
An et al[6]2007South Koreasm: 1043Tumor size (20 mm < 40 mm vs < 10 mm)1.881.03-3.45
Tumor size (≥ 40 mm vs < 10 mm)1.961.34-2.88
Lymphatic invasion8.415.76-12.29
Yi Kim et al[24]2007South Koream: 9, sm: 51Lymphatic invasion8.111.61-40.77
E-Cadherin (abnormal expression vs normal expression)2.620.917-7.457
Li et al[48]2008South Koream: 356, sm: 270Tumor size (≥ 20 mm vs < 20 mm)2.041.12-3.73
Tumor depth (pT1b vs pT1a)2.841.48-5.44
Lymphovascular invasion15.117.41-30.80
Park et al[49]2008South KoreaOnly poorly diff.Tumor depth (500-1000 μm invasion to submucosa)14.692.54-85.09
adenocarcinomaTumor depth (1000-2000 μm invasion to submucosa)6.201.57-24.52
m: 118, sm: 116Tumor depth (> 2000 μm invasion to submucosa)6.371.35-30.14
Tumor size (> 30 mm in diameter )4.531.13-18.20
Lymphovascular invasion12.634.05-39.37
Shen et al[50]2009Chinasm: 144Histological differentiation (Undifferentiated vs Differentiated)2.701.18-6.17
Tumor size (≥ 20 mm vs < 20 mm)2.931.32-6.54
Morita et al[51]2009Japansm: 70Tumor size1.041.01-1.08
Lymphatic invasion5.221.84-20.74
VEGF-C (positive vs negative)3.311.00-0.95
Kunisaki et al[52]2009Japanm: 269, sm: 304Tumor size (≥ 20 mm vs < 20 mm)3.341.39-8.01
Tumor depth (SM1 vs M)2.961.03-8.52
Tumor depth (SM2 vs M)4.531.69-12.18
Lymphovascular invasion9.374.78-18.37
Sung et al[53]2010Taiwanm: 293, sm: 263Tumor size (≥ 2 mm in diameter vs < 2 cm)2.281.20-4.17
Lymphatic invasion27.2010.3-74.8
Tumor depth (pT1b vs pT1a)4.912.44-9.89
Lee et al[54]2010South Koream: 39, sm: 85Lymphatic invasion15.335.06-46.44
Tumor size (≥ 30 mm vs < 30 mm)4.161.52-11.45
Tumor depth (M/SM1 vs SM2/SM3)3.111.21-7.98
Intratumoral vessel density3.571.20-10.64
Lim et al[55]2011South Koreasm: 163Lymphovascular invasion4.571.74-12.24
Macroscopic type (elevated vs flat)9.091.75-50.0
Macroscopic type (elevated vs depressed)5.891.69-20.0
Macroscopic type (elevated vs mixed)20.000.00-2.70
Lee et al[56]2012South KoreaOnly poorly diff.Tumor size (≥ 20 mm vs < 20 mm)2.471.39-4.40
adenocarcinomaTumor depth (pT1b vs pT1a)2.421.46-3.99
m: 510, sm: 495Lymphatic invasion6.504.14-10.19
Ren et al[57]2013Chinam: 122, sm: 80Tumor depth (pT1b vs pT1a)2.742.32-3.17
Fujii et al[23]2013Japansm: 130Lymphatic invasion8.07NA
Lymphocytic infiltration (absent vs present)7.94NA
Shida et al[27]2014Japansm: 145Lymphatic invasion3.111.71-5.67
Vascular invasion2.441.05-5.67
Lee et al[12]2015South Koream: 847Tumor size1.361.10-1.69
Lymphovascular invasion27.527.40-102.20
Ulceration (present vs absent)7.541.90-29.90
Undifferntiated type of component (present vs absent)4.391.08-17.89
Park et al[25]2015South Koreasm: 756Tumor size (≥ 2 cm in diameter vs < 2 cm)1.571.04-2.36
Tumor depth (sm2 vs sm1)2.961.55-5.64
Tumor depth (sm3 vs sm1)2.911.61-5.29
Lymphovascular invasion,7.454.93-11.25
Negative for EB virus4.241.26-14.32
Feng et al[58]2016Chinam: 339, sm: 237Tumor depth2.941.82-4.77
Ulceration (present vs absent)2.551.21-5.38
Lymphovascular invasion4.401.19-16.3