Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016.
World J Gastroenterol. Sep 7, 2016; 22(33): 7402-7414
Published online Sep 7, 2016. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i33.7402
Table 1 Comprehensive summary of Campylobacter infections in humans
TypeClinical form/presentationRisk factorsTarget siteSymptomsSpecies associated
(A) IntestinalPeriodontal diseasesOral bleeding, increased vascular permeability[70], and pregnancy[71]?Oral cavityBleeding, tenderness, and tooth lossC. rectus[70], C. gracilis, C. showae[72] and C. concisus[73]
Esophageal diseasesMucosal damage due to stomach contents regurgitation[1]EsophagusHeart burn, regurgitation, bloating, bad breath, nausea, and abdominal painC. concisus[74]
(gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett’s esophagus, and esophageal adenocarcinoma)
Self-limited gastroenteritis, most common formAll factors as described in reviewJejunum and ileumDiarrhea, fever, and abdominal painC. jejuni and C. coli[1,75]
Post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorder, irritable bowel syndrome, and functional dyspepsiaInfection with C. jejuni and other species[1]Diarrhea, constipation or both, and abdominal painC. jejuni, C. coli and C. consisus[76]
Inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s diseases (CD), and ulcerative colitis (UC)Gut dysbiosis[77]CD-any part of intestine UC- colonDiarrhea, fever and fatigue, abdominal pain, weight loss, and reduced appetiteC. concisus, C. showae, C. hominis, C. rectus, and C. ureolyticus[78]
Colorectal cancerGut dysbiosis[79]ColonDiarrhea, constipation, abdominal pain, weight loss, and rectal bleedingC. showae[80]
CholecystitisGall stones[1]Gall bladderPain and tenderness in right abdomen, nausea, vomiting, and feverC. jejuni[81]
(B) Extra-intestinalGuillain-Barre syndromeC. jejuni infection[82]Nervous systemProgressive symmetric weakness in limbs, below or lack of reflex (hyporeflexia)C. jejuni[1,82]
Miller Fisher syndromeC. jejuni[83]Nervous systemOculo-motor weaknessC. jejuni[83]
Reactive arthritisInfection with enteric bacterial pathogens, including Campylobacter[84]Joints, eyes, and genitourinary tractPain and stiffness of joints, swollen toes, eye inflammation, and urinary problemsC. jejuni and C. coli[1,84]
Cardiovascular complicationsImmuno-compromised condition, and bacteremia[1]Cardiovascular systemChest pain leading to arrhythmia, dilated cardiomyopathy, and sudden death due to congestive heart failureC. jejuni and C. fetus[85,86]
MeningitisImmuno-compromised condition[1,87]Meninges of brain and spinal cordHeadache with nausea or vomiting, seizures, sensitive to light, and loss of appetiteC. jejuni and C. fetus[88,89]
Abscesses of breast, brain, vertebra, and liverSecondary bacterial infectionBreast, brain, vertebra, and liverVaries with target organC. rectus[90], C. curvus, C. gracilis and C. showae[91]
Reproductive complicationBowel infection, and periodontal disease[92]Uterus, and placentaPreterm birth, low birth weight, and intra-uterine growth restrictionC. jejuni, C. coli, C. fetus and C. upsaliensis[92]
Table 2 Phenotypes associated with enzymes of poly P and ppGpp metabolism
Poly P metabolism
Poly P synthesis/accumulation----
Poly P-dependent GTP synthesis-NTNTNTNTNT
Poly P degradation--NTNT
Maintenance of ATP:GTP ratioNTNTNTNTNTNT
ppGpp metabolism
ppGpp synthesisNT--NT
Stress survival
Stationary phase survival and growth------
Survival under low CO2NTNTNTNTNTNT
Osmotic shock survivalNT
Low nutrient stress survivalNT
Aerobic stress survival-NTNTNTNT
Natural transformationNTNTNTNTNTNT
Antimicrobial resistanceNTNTNTR
Biofilm formationNT
Resistance to complement-mediated killingNTNTNTNT
Intraepithelial survival
Chicken colonizationNTNTNTNT
Table 3 Summary of chicken colonization phenotypes of ppk1 and ppk2 mutants
StudyOrgan/fecesInoculation dose (CFU/chick)Wildtype (CFU/g)ppk1 mutant (No. of chicks colonized)ppk2 mutant (No. of chicks colonized)
Candon et al[24] 2007Ceca1.5 × 1051.8 × 1080/10 chicksNS
1.5 × 1061.8 × 1088/10 chicksNS
1.5 × 1071.8 × 10810/10 chicks at an average of 1.8 × 108 CFU/gNS
Gangaiah et al[25] 2009 and 2010Ceca1.0 × 1031.0 × 1060/5 chicks0/5 chicks
1.0 × 1041.0 × 1080/5 chicks0/5 chicks
1.0 × 1058.0 × 1085/5 chicks at an average of 2.0 × 104 CFU/g5/5 chicks at an average of 9.0 × 103 CFU/g
Bursa1.0 × 1031.0 × 1040/5 chicks0/5 chicks
1.0 × 1041.0 × 1050/5 chicks0/5 chicks
1.0 × 1051.5 × 1055/5 chicks at an average of 1.0 × 102 CFU/g5/5 chicks at an average of 8.0 × 102 CFU/g
Feces1.0 × 1031.0 × 1050/5 chicks0/5 chicks
1.0 × 1041.0 × 1070/5 chicks0/5 chicks
1.0 × 1053.0 × 1075/5 chicks at an average of 1.5 × 103 CFU/g5/5 chicks at an average of 8.0 × 103 CFU/g