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Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Gastroenterol. Nov 14, 2015; 21(42): 12091-12100
Published online Nov 14, 2015. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i42.12091
Table 1 Structure, mechanism of action, and incidence of resistance of currently available nucleoside analogues[12,20,21]
Drug nameStructureMechanism of actionIncidence of drug resistance
LAMCytidine analoguePremature chain terminationHigh
LDTThymidine analogueHigh
ETVGuanosine analogueInhibits priming RTLow
Inhibit negative and positive strand synthesis
ADVAdenosine analoguePremature chain terminationHigh
TDFInhibit negative strand synthesisUnknown
Table 2 Treatment selections for liver transplant recipients with HBV recurrence and drug resistance[10,16,84]
HBV recurrence after liver transplantLAM resistanceAdd ADV or switch to ETV or TDF
ADV resistanceSwitch to TDF
ETV resistanceSwitch to TDF
HBIG resistanceSwitch to NAs monotherapy or combined therapy
Table 3 Strategies for preventing hepatitis B virus recurrence for different groups of hepatitis B virus-related liver transplant recipients
Low risk recipient (undetectable HBV DNA before transplantation)NAs + HBIG[52]
NAs + short-term HBIG, then switch to NAs combined therapy[58,59] or NA monotherapy (ETV or TDF)[66]
NAs combined therapy[54,68]
NA monotherapy (ETV or TDF)[69] (Further studies are needed)
High risk recipient (detectable HBV DNA before transplantation or with limited antiviral options)NA + long-term HBIG[56]
Recipient with HBcAb positive donorsNA + HBIG[91,92]
NA monotherapy[93,94]
Active immunization[95]