Topic Highlight
Copyright ©2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Co.
World J Gastroenterol. Jan 21, 2014; 20(3): 613-629
Published online Jan 21, 2014. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i3.613
Table 1 Autoimmune diseases or autoimmune disease-related disorders which have been studied for their possible (direct or indirect) relation with Helicobacter pylori infection
AID or AID-related disorders linked to H. pyloriAID or AID-related disorders linked to H. pylori
1Alopecia areata49Juvenile diabetes (Type 1 diabetes)
2Antiphospholipid syndrome50Kawasaki syndrome
3Autoimmune angioedema51Leukocytoclastic vasculitis
4Autoimmune hepatitis52Lichen planus
5Autoimmune hyperlipidemia53Linear IgA disease
6Autoimmune hemolytic anemia54Lupus (SLE)
7Autoimmune myocarditis55Microscopic polyangiitis
8Autoimmune oophoritis56Mixed connective tissue disease
9Autoimmune pancreatitis57Mooren’s ulcer
10Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes58Multiple sclerosis
11Autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura59Myositis
12Autoimmune thyroid disease60Narcolepsy
13Autoimmune urticaria61Neuromyelitis optica (Devic’s)
14Axonal and neuronal neuropathies62Neutropenia
15Behcet’s disease63Ocular cicatricial pemphigoid
16Bullous pemphigoid64Optic neuritis
17Cardiomyopathy65Palindromic rheumatism
18Celiac disease66Pars planitis (peripheral uveitis)
19Chagas disease67Pemphigus
20Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy68Peripheral neuropathy
21Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis69Perivenous encephalomyelitis
22Crohn’s disease70Pernicious anemia
23Cogans syndrome71Polyarteritis nodosa
24Demyelinating neuropathies72Polymyalgia rheumatica
25Dermatitis herpetiformis73Polymyositis
26Dermatomyositis74Primary biliary cirrhosis
27Devic’s disease (neuromyelitis optica)75Primary sclerosing cholangitis
28Eosinophilic esophagitis76Psoriasis
29Eosinophilic fasciitis77(Idiopathic) pulmonary fibrosis
30Erythema nodosum78Pyoderma gangrenosum
31Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis79Raynaud’s phenomenon
32Fibromyalgia80Reactive Arthritis
33Fibrosing alveolitis81Reiter’s syndrome
34Giant cell arteritis (temporal arteritis)82Relapsing polychondritis
35Giant cell myocarditis83Rheumatoid arthritis
37Goodpasture’s syndrome85Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis)
38Graves’ disease86Sjogren’s syndrome
39Guillain-Barre syndrome87Temporal arteritis/Giant cell arteritis
40Hashimoto’s thyroiditis88Thrombocytopenic purpura
41Henoch-Schonlein purpura89Transverse myelitis
42Hypogammaglobulinemia idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura90Type 1 diabetes
43IgA nephropathy91Ulcerative colitis
44IgG4-related sclerosing disease92Undifferentiated connective tissue disease
45Immunoregulatory lipoproteins93Uveitis
46Inclusion body myositis94Vasculitis (other forms)
47Interstitial cystitis95Vesiculobullous dermatosis
48Juvenile arthritis
Table 2 Autoimmune diseases or autoimmune diseases-related disorders which have not been studied for their possible (direct or indirect) relation with Helicobacter pylori infection
AID or AID-related disorders not linked to H. pylori
1Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis
2Acute necrotizing hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis
3Addison's disease
6Ankylosing spondylitis
7Anti-GBM/Anti-TBM nephritis
8Autoimmune aplastic anemia
9Autoimmune dysautonomia
10Autoimmune immunodeficiency
11Autoimmune inner ear disease
12Autoimmune retinopathy
13Balo disease
14Castleman disease
15Chronic fatigue syndrome
16Churg-Strauss syndrome
17Cicatricial pemphigoid/benign mucosal pemphigoid
18Congenital heart block
19Coxsackie myocarditis
20CREST disease
21Essential mixed cryoglobulinemia
22Discoid lupus
23Dressler’s syndrome
25Evans syndrome
26Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (formerly called Wegener’s Granulomatosis)
27Hashimoto’s encephalitis
28Herpes gestationis
29Juvenile myositis
30Lambert-Eaton syndrome
31Lichen sclerosus
32Ligneous conjunctivitis
33Lyme disease,
34(Chronic) Meniere’s disease
35Mucha-Habermann disease
36Myasthenia gravis
37Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcus
38Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration
39Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
40Parry Romberg syndrome
41Parsonage-Turner syndrome
42POEMS syndrome
43Postmyocardial infarction syndrome
44Postpericardiotomy syndrome
45Progesterone dermatitis
46Psoriatic arthritis
47Pure red cell aplasia
48Reflex sympathetic dystrophy
49Restless legs syndrome
50Retroperitoneal fibrosis
51Rheumatic fever
52Schmidt syndrome
54Sperm and testicular autoimmunity
55Stiff person syndrome
56Subacute bacterial endocarditis
57Susac’s syndrome
58Sympathetic ophthalmia
59Takayasu’s arteritis
60Tolosa-Hunt syndrome
Table 3 Evidence in support or against the role of Helicobacter pylori in autoimmune disease
Autoimmune conditionEvidence in support and/or against the role of H. pyloriOverall opinion
Oral cavity populated with H. pylori
Higher level of anti-H. pylori antibodies in SjS patients
Increased incidence of mucosal associated lymphoid tissue and lymphomas in parotid and lacrimal glands of SjS patients
Low levels of anti-H. pylori antibodies in SjS patients compared to controls
Higher incidence of H. pylori antibodies in SSc patients than controls
H. pylori eradication improves Raynaud's in SSc patients
Possible protective role against Barrett's esophagus
Higher level of CagA strain H. pylori infected patients
Low incidence of anti-H. pylori antibodies compared to controls
Increased rheumatoid factor IgM from B cells chronically stimulated with H. pylori urease
Low prevalence of anti-H. pylori in RA patients
Unchanged clinical course or symptomatology after H. pylori eradication
H. pylori urease exposure induced anti-ssDNA antibody production in an animal model of SLE
Low levels of anti-H. pylori found among SLE patients, at levels comparable to controls
Negative association between H. pylori seropositivity and the development of SLE in African-American women
Improvement of platelet counts following H. pylori eradication (CagA type H. pylori in particular)
Anti-CagA antibodies cross-react with peptides on platelets of ITP patient
Platelet associated IgGs declined following H. pylori eradication
Found in high prevalence in some ITP cohorts
Platelet eluates from ITP patients recognize H. pylori CagA
Low levels of H. pylori found in ITP patients
AiTDSupport:Probable in Graves’ disease
Higher seropositivity and positive stool cultures for H. pylori in Graves’ disease patients
CagA strain predominant among Graves’ disease patients
Amino acid similarities between CagA and thyroid peroxidase
Reduction in anti-thyroid antibodies following H. pylori eradication
Against:Unlikely in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
Low levels of infection among Hashimoto’s thyroiditis patients
MS and NMOSupport:Probable in NMO
High rate of H. pylori infection among NMO patients
Correlation between H. pylori infection and presence of aquaporin-4 antibodies
Against:Unlikely in MS
H. pylori infection rates in MS patients similar to or lower than control groups
Higher levels of anti-H. pylori antibodies in patients
Appears to be correlation between H. pylori infection and disease severity
Clinical improvement following H. pylori eradication
No difference in anti-H. pylori levels compared to controls
No difference of CagA seropositivity between patients and controls
Behçet’s diseaseSupport:Unlikely
Higher infection prevalence in patients
Some clinical improvement noted after eradication
No difference between patients and controls
Alopecia areataSupport:Unlikely
Higher infection prevalence
No difference in infection prevalence between patients and controls
Higher prevalence of anti-H. pylori antibodies among PBC patients
Amino acid similarities between pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 (PDC-E2) and urease beta of H. pylori
No differences of infection found between patients and controls
No immunological cross reactivities at the B or CD4 T-cell level
No crossreactivity between H. pylori VacA and PDC-E2
No current evidence
No differences in anti-H. pylori antibodies between patients and controls
No significant difference between H. pylori in liver tissues in patients compared to controls
Detectable H. pylori DNA in PSC liver samples
CagA in samples from PSC patients
Concomitant ulcerative colitis may be related to H. pylori translocation from the gut to the liver
No difference in H. pylori prevalence among pediatric or adult PSC patients compared to controls
No significant difference between H. pylori in liver tissues in patients compared to controls