Copyright ©2013 Baishideng Publishing Group Co.
World J Gastroenterol. Aug 14, 2013; 19(30): 4850-4860
Published online Aug 14, 2013. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i30.4850
Table 1 Criteria on lymph node characterization using different ultrasound modes
Lymphadenopathy more (most) likelyB-mode(Contrast enhanced) Colour DopplerVascular resistanceCEUS (contrast special imaging mode)Elastography
InflammatoryPreserved architectur, homogeneous, thin cortexPreserved vessel architecture, hilar vascularity with or without tree like branching.Lower, RI < 0.8, PI < 1.6Homogeneous enhancement from the hilum, centrifugal enhancementNo data, most often normal architecture (except tuberculosis)
Malignant infiltration (metastasis)Destroyed architecture (capsule), eccentric hypoechoic cortical thickening,Peripheral or mixed vascularity, inhomogeneous vessel density, split arteries, torturous course of vesselsHigher, RI > 0.8, PI > 1.6, often variableat different sitesCentripetal enhancement, different intra-nodal enhancement levels, inhomogeneous wash-out, perfusion defectsInitially circumscribed. SR in diffuse infiltration > 1.5 (1.78)
inhomogeneity of the internal structure, loss of echogenic hilum, surrounding edema
LymphomaFocal or global hypoechoic cortical thickening, usually without echogenic hilum, peri-nodular edema, pseudocystic appearanceOften but not always preserved vessel architecture, rich vascularityIntermediate RI and PIIntense homogeneous enhancement, starts with diffuse bright spots, peripheral hypo-or non-enhancementNo data; wide range of appearance applying qualitative criteria