Copyright ©2010 Baishideng Publishing Group Co.
World J Gastroenterol. Nov 7, 2010; 16(41): 5181-5194
Published online Nov 7, 2010. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v16.i41.5181
Table 1 Prevalence of gastric atrophy in children
Author (yr)/countryUpdated Sydney SystemMean age (range, yr)No. of patients
Gastric atrophy and/or intestinal metaplasia (%)
H. pylori+H. pylori-H. pylori+H. pylori-
Whitney et al[28] (2000)/USAYes10.7 (1-21)420Antral: 16.6/0-/-
Fundic: 2.3/0
Kolho et al[33] (2000)/FinlandNot reported9.5 (2-16)7100/0-/-
Campbell et al[34] (2001)/GambiaYes1.4 (-/-)21160/00/0
Guiraldes et al[35] (2002)/ChileNo12.2 (5-17)59140/00/0
Oztürk et al[36] (2003)/TurkeyYes12.2 (6-16)189Antral: 72.2/77.711.1/0
Guarner et al[29] (2003)/USAYes- (1-17)1945Antral: 52.6/15.722.2/0
Fundic: 0/5.20/0
Usta et al[37] (2004)/TurkeyYes11.8 (4-17)17502.2/1.1-/-
Levine et al[38] (2004)/IsraelNot reported14.2 (-/-)55400/02.5/0
Ricuarte et al[27] (2005)/Colombia, KoreaNo12.0 (4-18)971816.41
14.0 (8-18)104800
Kato et al[39] (2006)/JapanYes11.3 (1-16)13165Antral: 51.9/4.610.8/4.6
Fundic: 34.8/08.3/4.2
Tutar et al[30] (2009)/TurkeyYes1.3 (0.1-2.0)401122.5/00/0
Kalach et al[40] (2009)/FranceYes5.3 (0.1-17.7)665530/00.2/0.2
Table 2 Randomized trials of Helicobacter pylori eradication for iron deficiency anemia and iron deficiency in children
Author (yr)/countryNo. of children with IDA/H. pyloriFollow-up (No. of children)Outcome
Choe et al[89] (1999)/Korea43/258 wk (18)Hb increased with: eradication + iron, eradication + placebo vs iron + placebo (P = 0.0086)No significant differences in serum iron or ferritin
Sarker et al[106] (2008)/Bangladesh260/2003 mo (260)IDA persisted with: eradication + iron, 11%; eradication alone, 33%; iron alone, 0%; placebo, 45%ID persisted with: eradication + iron, 19%; eradication alone, 65%; iron alone, 7%; placebo, 78%
Gessner et al[105] (2006)/Alaska219/21914 mo (201)IDA persisted with: eradication + iron, 22%; iron alone, 14%ID persisted with: eradication + iron, 65%; iron alone, 72%
Fagan et al[104] (2009)/Alaska219/21940 mo (176)IDA persisted with: eradication + iron, 5%; iron alone, 19%ID persisted with: eradication + iron, 52%; iron alone, 58%
Table 3 Cross-sectional studies on the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and growth retardation
Author (yr)/countryTotal No. of patients (H. pylori+)Age (range,yr)Diagnostic testConclusion
Perri et al[114] (1997)/Italy216 (49)3-14Urea breath testH. pylori infection was associated with growth delay, and poor socioeconomic status
Oderda et al[115] (1998)/Italy134 with short stature (27)5-13SerologyNo association with short stature
134 controls (18)5-13
Quiñonez et al[116] (1999)/Guatemala211 (107)5-10SerologyNo association with height for age and nutritional status
Choe et al[90] (2000)/Korea375 (63)10-15SerologyH. pylori infection accompanied by IDA, rather than H. pylori infection per se, was associated with delayed pubertal growth
Richter et al[117] (2001)/Germany3315 (213)5-7Urea breath testH. pylori infection was associated with growth delay
Ertem et al[118] (2002)/Turkey327 (162)3-12Urea breath testH. pylori infection was associated with short stature independently of poor living standards
Sood et al[119] (2005)/UK257 (97)-Urea breath testNo association with height and weight z scores, after adjustment for socioeconomic status and ethnicity
Süoglu et al[120] (2007)/Turkey70 (35)4-16EndoscopyH. pylori infection and IDA had a significant effect on height z scores, after adjustment for economic status
Mohammad et al[121] (2008)/Egypt286 (208)6-15Urea breath testH. pylori infection affected both body weight and height
Soylu et al[122] (2008)/Turkey108 with dyspepsia (57)7-17EndoscopyNo association with anthropometry. But, dyspeptic children had worse nutritional status compared to controls, regardless of H. pylori status
50 healthy controls8-17
Cherian et al[123] (2009)/Australia182 (149)< 16Stool antigenNo association with BMI or other anthropometric measures
Gulcan et al[124] (2010)/Turkey181 with RAP (121)6-15Endoscopy, 181RAP associated with gastric mucosal injury had a negative effect on BMI independent of H. pylori infection
309 asymptomatic (110)6-15Serology, 309RAP originating from H. pylori infection affected both BMI and linear growth