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Copyright ©2009 The WJG Press and Baishideng.
World J Gastroenterol. Dec 14, 2009; 15(46): 5770-5775
Published online Dec 14, 2009. doi: 10.3748/wjg.15.5770
Table 1 Confocal criteria for squamous cell epithelium and carcinoma
Squamous cell epitheliumSquamous cell neoplasia
Cellular criteriaDark, homogeneous epithelial cells; regular architecture and clearly visible bordersDark cells with different sizes; no clearly visible borders; irregular architecture
Vascular criteriaCapillaries directed to luminal epithelium without leakage of fluoresceinTwisted and irregular vessels; elongated capillaries; capillary leakage
Table 2 Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) classification of Barrett’s esophagus
Confocal diagnosisVessel architectureCrypt architecture
Gastric-type epitheliumCapillaries with a regular shape only visible in the deeper parts of the mucosal layerRegular columnar-lined epithelium with round glandular openings and typical cobblestone appearance
Barrett’s epitheliumSubepithelial capillaries with a regular shape underneath columnar-lined epithelium visible in the upper and deeper parts of the mucosal layerColumnar-lined epithelium with intermittent dark mucin in goblet cells in the upper parts of the mucosal layer. In the deeper parts, villous, dark, regular cylindrical Barrett’s epithelial cells are present
NeoplasiaIrregular capillaries visible in the upper and deeper parts of the mucosal layer. Leakage of vessels leads to a heterogeneous and brighter signal intensity within the lamina propriaBlack cells with irregular apical and distal borders and shapes, with strong dark contrast against the surrounding tissue
Table 3 CLE classification of patterns in colorectal lesions
GradingVessel architectureCrypt architecture
NormalHexagonal, honeycomb appearance that presents a network of capillaries outlining the stroma surrounding the luminal openings of the cryptsRegular luminal openings and distribution of crypts covered by a homogeneous layer of epithelial cells, including goblet cells
RegenerationHexagonal, honeycomb appearance with no increase or only a slight increase in the number of capillariesStar-shaped luminal crypt openings or focal aggregation of regular-shaped crypts with a regular or reduced amount of goblet cells
NeoplasiaDilated and distorted vessels with increased leakage; irregular architecture, with little or no orientation to the adjoining tissueRidge-lined irregular epithelial layer with loss of crypts and goblet cells; irregular cell architecture, with little or no mucin