Copyright ©2009 The WJG Press and Baishideng.
World J Gastroenterol. May 14, 2009; 15(18): 2177-2183
Published online May 14, 2009. doi: 10.3748/wjg.15.2177
Table 1 Characteristics of GC types
Type 1Type 2Type 3
Percentage (%)70-855-1015-25
Tumor characteristicsOften small, multiple, polypoid, multicentricOften small, multiple, polypoid, multicentricSingle, > 1-2 cm, polypoid and often ulcerated
Mean age at diagnosis (yr)635055
GenderFemales > malesFemales = malesMales > females
Associated conditionsChronic atrophic gastritis type AZES/MEN1Sporadic
Serum gastrin levelsIncreasedIncreasedNormal
pH of gastric juiceIncreasedLowNormal
Ki-67 (%)Usually < 2Usually < 2Usually > 2
Metastases (%)2-5< 10> 50
Table 2 Clinicopathological characteristics of endocrine tumors of the stomach according to WHO classification[23]
Well-differentiated tumor-carcinoid
Benign behavior: confined to mucosa-submucosa, non-angioinvasive, ≤ 1 cm in size, non-functioning
ECL cell tumor of corpus-fundus associated with hypergastrinemia and chronic atrophic gastritits (CAG) or MEN1 syndrome
Serotonin-producing tumor
Gastrin-producing tumor
Uncertain behavior: confined to mucosa-submucosa, > 1 cm in size, or angioinvasive
ECL cell tumor with CAG or MEN1 syndrome or sporadic
Serotonin-producing tumor
Gastrin-producing tumor
Well-differentiated endocrine carcinoma-malignant carcinoid
Low-grade malignant, deeply invasive (muscularis propria or beyond), or with metastasis
ECL cell carcinoid, usually sporadic, rarely in CAG or MEN1 syndrome
Serotonin-producing tumor
Gastrin-producing tumor
ECL cell carcinoid with atypical carcinoid syndrome
Serotonin-producing carcinoid with syndrome
Gastrin-producing carcinoma-malignant gastrinoma
ACTH-producing carcinoma with Cushing syndrome
Poorly differentiate endocrine carcinoma-small cell carcinoma, high grade malignant, usually non-functioning, occasionally with Cushing syndrome
Table 3 Proposed TNM staging system for GC tumors[7]
Primary tumor
Depth of invasionSize
T1Up to and including muscularis propria≤ 3 cm
T2Beyond muscularis propria≤ 3 cm
T3Up to and including muscularis propria> 3 cm
Beyond muscularis propria> 3 cm
Lymph node
N0No lymph node metastasis
N1Regional lymph node metastasis
Distant metastasis
M0No distant metastasis
M1Distant metastasis
Disease stageTNM
IT1Any NM0
Any TAny NM1