Copyright ©The Author(s) 2020.
World J Gastroenterol. Jun 21, 2020; 26(23): 3170-3181
Published online Jun 21, 2020. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v26.i23.3170
Table 2 Anti-inflammatory activity of urolithin A relevant to the intestine
Cell line/modelMechanismRef.
CCD18-Co/cytokine-induced inflammation IL-1β or TNF-α↓IL-1β-induced PGE2 levelGiménez-Bastida et al[41]
↓IL-1β or TNF-α -stimulated migration
↓non-stimulated migration
↓IL-1β-stimulated adhesion
↑TNF-α -decreased cell viability
↓IL-1β or TNF-α -induced expression of members of the EGF, PGF, PDGF, VEGF, M-CSF, and IGF families
↓IL-1β -induced PAI-1 and TNF-α -induced IL-8 levels
Fischer rats/DSS-induced colitis↑HCT, RBCsLarrosa et al[42]
↓Loss of epithelium, total histological scores
E. coli, enterobacteria, and total aerobic bacteria CAT activity
Rb1, p53CD40, IL-1β and IL-4
C57BL/6 x FVB F1/BRB intervention↑Shannon diversity indexGu et al[44]
↑Bacteroidetes, Barnesiella
↓Firmicutes, Clostridium, Turicibacter, Lactobacillus
BMDMs/LPS↓IL-6, TNF-α levelSingh et al[45]
C57BL/6 mice↓LPS-induced serum level of IL-6, TNF-αSingh et al[45]
↑Colonic and hepatic Cyp1A1 activity in WT not in AhR−/− mice
↑Colonic Cldn4, Nrf2, and NQO1 in WT not in AhR−/− and Nrf2−/− mice
↑Colonic Cldn4, Nrf2, and NQO1 in WT not in AhR−/− and Nrf2−/− mice
HT-29, Caco-2Cldn4, Ocln, and ZO1Singh et al[45]
↑Cldn4, Ocln, and ZO1
↓LPS-induced leakage of FITC-dextran
Cyp1A1, Cyp1A1 protein expression, and activity
↑AhR-reporter, nuclear translocation of AhR
Cldn4 expression not affected in Ahr SiRNA and CYP1A1 SiRNA cells
↑Nrf2 levels, nuclear translocation of Nrf2
C57BL/6 mice/TNBS↓Weight loss, diseases activity index, intestinal permeabilitySingh et al[45]
↓Colonic MPO level
↓Serum IL-6, TNF-α, CXCL1, and IL-1β levels
↑Colon length, Cldn4
↓Tissue damage and inflammation scores
AhR-knockdown caco-2 cells/TCDD/IL-1β /TMFIL-6, CYP1A1, PTGS2 in siControlMuku et al[47]
NS IL-6, CYP1A1, PTGS2 in siAhR