Copyright ©The Author(s) 2020.
World J Gastroenterol. Jun 14, 2020; 26(22): 2916-2930
Published online Jun 14, 2020. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v26.i22.2916
Table 1 Effect of alcohol on nutrients
NutrientsEffect of alcohol intakeResults
CarbohydrateAcute alcohol intakeInhibits gluconeogenesis; stimulates hepatic glycogenolysisHypoglycaemic; hyperglycaemic
Chronic alcohol intakeInhibits lactate stimulated gluconeogenesis; carbohydrate rich food taken with alcoholHyperlactatemia; delayed paradoxical hypoglycaemic state
ProteinsAcute and chronic alcohol intakeIncreases nitrogen excretion; imbalance between protein growth and breakdownMuscle wasting and myopathy
LipidsAcute and chronic alcohol intakeInhibits β-oxidation and increases esterification of fatty acidsIncreased accumulation of triglycerides in the hepatocytesFibrosis
ThiamineChronic alcohol intakeInadequate nutritional intake Decreased absorptionWernicke Korsakoff syndrome
FolateChronic alcohol intakeReduced dietary intake; intestinal malabsorption; reduced liver uptake, storage; increased urinary excretionMacrocytic anaemia; muscle dysfunction
Vitamin AChronic alcohol intakeInhibit the cleavage of β-carotene, a dietary pro-vitamin A carotenoidXerophthalmia and night blindness
Vitamin CChronic alcohol intakeIntestinal malabsorption; hepatotoxicity inhibits hepatic transformation to their active metabolitesScurvy and poor wound healing
ZincChronic alcohol intakeDisrupts gut permeability; decreases ileal -zinc concentration; increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species and plasma endotoxin levelsAcrodermatitis; anorexia; hypogonadism; altered immune function; poor wound healing; impaired night vision; diarrhoea; impaired mental function and portal systemic encephalopathy
MagnesiumChronic alcohol intakeIncreases the urinary excretion of magnesiumCardiovascular: Hypertension, stroke and myocardial infarction; Neurological: Seizure, depression and neuromuscular abnormalities