Copyright ©The Author(s) 2018.
World J Gastroenterol. Oct 7, 2018; 24(37): 4217-4223
Published online Oct 7, 2018. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v24.i37.4217
Figure 1
Figure 1 Alterations in intestinal homeostasis described in multiple sclerosis as therapeutic targets. Altered bile acid metabolism, altered microbiota and alterations in intestinal barrier function all lead to local and systemic alterations in immune responses that could negatively impact MS pathophysiology (grey squares). Bile acid supplementation, fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, antibiotics and barrier protectors are all possible therapeutic interventions (blue squares). MS: Multiple sclerosis; FMT: Fecal microbiota transplantation; PC: Paneth cells; EC: Epithelial cells; TJ: Tight junctions; L: Lymphocytes.