Copyright ©2012 Baishideng Publishing Group Co.
World J Gastroenterol. Feb 21, 2012; 18(7): 616-626
Published online Feb 21, 2012. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i7.616
Table 1 Psychological and social factors in irritable bowel syndrome
Environmental factors
Early life events
Upbringing environment
Family function
Abuse history
Psychosocial stressors
Life events (divorce, unemployment, death of a close relative)
Daily hassles
Personality traits
Neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness
Health beliefs
Hypochondriacal beliefs
Illness representation
Perceived susceptibility
Coping strategies
Maladaptive coping (catastrophyzing, self-blame, substance abuse)
Negative emotions and psychiatric disorders
Mood disorders (major depression and dysthymic disorder)
Anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder)
Somatization and somatoform disorders