Copyright ©2008 The WJG Press and Baishideng.
World J Gastroenterol. Oct 21, 2008; 14(39): 5945-5961
Published online Oct 21, 2008. doi: 10.3748/wjg.14.5945
Table 6 Clinical outcome of hormonal therapeutic trials in HCC patients
Receptor protein/mRNA expressionClinical parameterTreatmentnCountrySalient FindingsYrReference
ER proteinTumor growthProgestin5United StatesTumor regression in 21982[30]
NAAnti-tumor responseTamoxifen 20 mg twice daily33United StatesNo complete or partial antitumor response1990[73]
Survival timeLong term survival (18+ to 39+ mo) in 4 patients
NAAnti-tumoral effectTamoxifen 20 mg daily120 (placebo = 62)SpainNo-antitumor effect1995[74]
Survival timeNo significant differences in survival rate of placebo and treated groups
Wild type and variant ER mRNATumor size and growth rateTamoxifen 80 mg daily or Megestrol 160 mg daily8ItalyGrowth rate 4 times higher in tumors expression variant ER than wild type ERs. Tumor regression to half size in patients with wild type ER following tamoxifen treatment. Megestrol slowed down tumor growth in tumors with variant ERs1996[54]
ER proteinMortality ratesTamoxifen119 (placebo = 58)ChinaNo difference in 1 mo mortality rates and median survival in treated and control groups2000[75]
SurvivalNo effect of ER expression on survival
Variant ER mRNATumor growth, survivalMegestrol 160 mg daily24 placebo, 21 treatedItalySignificantly slowed down tumor growth and improved survival in treated patients than placebo group2001[76]
NASurvival ratesTamoxifen 120 mg daily or 60 mg daily329SingaporeNo positive effect on survival and increasingly negative impact with increasing doses2005[77]