Copyright ©2008 The WJG Press and Baishideng.
World J Gastroenterol. Sep 21, 2008; 14(35): 5377-5384
Published online Sep 21, 2008. doi: 10.3748/wjg.14.5377
Table 3 Carcinoid syndrome
Clinical featuresIncidence (%)CharacteristicsMediators
Flushing90Foregut tumors: prolonged fit, red-purple, localized to face and trunk. Midgut tumors: quick fit, pink-red.Serotonin, histamine, P substance, prostaglandins
Diarrhea70SecretorySerotonin, histamine, VIP, prostaglandins, gastrin
Abdominal pain40Long lastingObstruction, hepatomegaly, intestinal ischemia, fibrosis
Profuse sweating15Serotonin, histamine
Telangiectasias25FaceUnknown cause
Heart disease30 (right)Valvulopathies (tricuspid valve, pulmonary valve). Right heart failure. DyspneaP substance, serotonin
10 (left)
Pellagra5DermatitisDeficit of niacin