Copyright ©2008 The WJG Press and Baishideng.
World J Gastroenterol. Sep 21, 2008; 14(35): 5377-5384
Published online Sep 21, 2008. doi: 10.3748/wjg.14.5377
Table 2 TNM staging for pancreatic NETs[13], foregut and midgut gastrointestinal carcinoids[14]
Pancreatic NETsForegut and midgut gastrointestinal carcinoids
T-primary tumor
TxPrimary tumor cannot be assessedPrimary tumor cannot be assessed
T0No evidence of primary tumorNo evidence of primary tumor
T1Tumor limited to the pancreas and size < 2 cmTumor invades mucosa or submucosa and size ≤ 1 cm
T2Tumor limited to the pancreas and size 2-4 cmTumor invades muscularis propria and size > 1 cm
T3Tumor limited to the pancreas and size > 4 cm or invading duodenum or bile ductTumor invades subserosa
T4Tumor invading adjacent organs (stomach, spleen, colon, adrenal gland) or the wall of large vessels (celiac axis or superior mesenteric artery)Tumor invades adjacent structures
For any T, add (m) for multiple tumorsFor any T, add (m) for multiple tumors
N-regional lymph nodes
NxRegional lymph nodes cannot be assessedRegional lymph nodes cannot be assessed
N0No regional lymph node metastasesNo regional lymph node metastases
N1Regional lymph node metastasesRegional lymph node metastases
M- distant metastases
MxDistant metastases cannot be assessedDistant metastases cannot be assessed
M0No distant metastasesNo distant metastases
M1Distant metastasesDistant metastases
Disease stage
IIIbAny TN1M0Any TN1M0
IVAny TAny NM1Any TAny NM1