Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016.
World J Gastroenterol. Apr 7, 2016; 22(13): 3547-3557
Published online Apr 7, 2016. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i13.3547
Figure 1
Figure 1 Targeting liver cancer stem cells is necessary to prevent tumor recurrence. LCSCs are resistant to the current standard of care: surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therapeutic approaches and strategies to target LCSCs in addition to the differentiated tumor cells are necessary to effectively treat the entire cancer and prevent tumor recurrence. LCSCs: Liver cancer stem cells.
Figure 2
Figure 2 Proposed hierarchy of liver cancer stem cells according to the current literature. Liver cancer stem cell markers have been defined that can give rise to ALDH+CD133+, EpCAM+CD90+, CD133+CD44+ and other early progenitor cells, each of which can subsequently divide into more differentiated progenitor cells. Rounded arrows show cells with self-renewal capacity that have the potential to serve as CSCs. Small arrows show the unproven potential for “de-differentiation”. CSCs: Cancer stem cells.