Copyright ©2006 Baishideng Publishing Group Co.
World J Gastroenterol. Mar 21, 2006; 12(11): 1657-1670
Published online Mar 21, 2006. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v12.i11.1657
Figure 1
Figure 1 Classical model of intestinal sugar transport (from Wright, 1998). SGLT1 is the sodium dependent glucose/galactose transporter on the brush border membrane (BBM). The Na+K+-ATPase on the basolateral membrane (BLM) maintains the gradient necessary for the functioning of SGLT1. GLUT5 is a facilitative transporter on the BBM which transports fructose into the cell. GLUT2 on the BLM transports glucose, galactose and fructose out of the cell.
Figure 3
Figure 3 The regulation of BBM fructose transport by the PI3K, ERK and p38 MAPK signalling pathways (from Helliwell et al, 2000). Abbreviations: IRS=insulin regulatory subunit, ERK=extracellular regulated kinase, MEK=mitogen activated kinase kinases, PI3K=phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, PD98059=ERK/MEK inhibitor, SB203580=p38 MAPK inhibitor, anisomycin=activator of p38 and jun kinase pathways.
Figure 2
Figure 2 Proposed role of PI3K/Akt signalling pathway in the regulation of GLUT5 synthesis and trafficking (from Cui et al, 2005). Abbreviations: F = fructose, PIP3 = phosphatidylinositol-3, 4, 5-triphosphate, PIP2 = phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-biphosphate, PI3K = phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.
Figure 4
Figure 4 Potential signaling pathways for the regulation of GLUT2-mediated sugar absorption by insulin and amino acids through the control of PKC βII activity. (from Helliwell et al, 2003). Abbreviations: PMA= phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, PDK-1=protein-dependent kinase-1, PI3K=phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, PKB=protein kinase B, mTOR=mammalian target of rapamycin, PKCβII=protein kinase C βII.
Figure 5
Figure 5 Proposed alternative mechanism for intestinal glucose transepithelial transport (from Stumpel et al, 2001). Abbreviations:Glc=glucose, Glc-6-P=glucose-6-phosphate, G6PT=glucose-6-phosphate translocase, 3-OMG=3-O-methylglucose, S4048=inhibitor of glucose-6-phosphate translocase, Pi=phosphate.