Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Clin Cases. Sep 16, 2015; 3(9): 779-788
Published online Sep 16, 2015. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v3.i9.779
Table 2 Gingival enlargement associated with syndromes in different types of genetic disorders
Syndromes associated with heriditary gingival fibromatosis
Zimmerman-Laband syndrome[18]Abnormal fingers, nails, nose and ears, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, hyperextensible metacarpophalangeal joints
Ramon syndrome[19]Cherubism, seizures, mental deficiency, hypertrichosis, stunted growth, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
Systemic Hyalinosis[20]Painful joint contractures, diffuse thickening of the skin with pearly papules and fleshy nodules and failure to thrive
Jones syndrome[21]Progressive sensorineural deafness
Rutherford syndrome[22]Corneal opacity, mental retardation and aggressive behavior, failure of tooth eruption
Cross syndrome[23]Hypopigmentation, mental retardation and writhing movement of hand and legs
Schinzel-Giedion syndrome[24]Severe mid face retraction, severe mental retardation and congenital heart defect, patient usually die under 10 yr of age
Costello syndrome[25]Macrostomia, redundant skin of neck, hands and feet, nasal and perioral papillomas, enlargement within first years of life
Syndromes associated with lysosomal storage diseases
Hurler syndrome[26]Dwarfism, flexion contractures, hernias, corneal clouding, macroglossia, short mandibular rami, peg-shaped teeth
Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome[27]Enlargement of skull, corneal opacities, short peg-shaped poorly formed teeth, hypertrophy of alveolar ridges, anterior open bite
Neimann-Pick disease[28]Thick lips, macroglossia and widely spaced teeth
Anderson-Fabry disease[29,30]Painful crises on extremities and abdomen, angiokeratomas of skin, labial mucosa and buccal mucosa
Cowden syndrome[31]Cobblestone papules of gingiva and buccal mucosa, macrocephaly, multiple hamartomas, learning disabilities, autism
Gingival enlargement associated with vascular disorders
Sturge-Weber syndrome[32]Unilateral cutaneous nevi, unilateral vascular hyperplasia, neurological manifestations and ocular complications
Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome[33]Capillary hemangiomas, increased size of lips, tongue, teeth malformations, delayed exfoliation of teeth, calcified roots
Gingival enlargement associated with characteristic dental abnormalities
Wilson syndrome[34]Enamel hypoplasia, multiple small red papules of lips, early onset periodontitis and repeated oral candidiasis, signs of cirrhosis
GoltzGorlin syndrome[35]Partial anodontia, hypoplastic teeth, atrophy and linear pigmentation of skin, herniation of fat, multiple papillomas, digital anomalies