Case Report
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2023.
World J Clin Cases. May 26, 2023; 11(15): 3560-3570
Published online May 26, 2023. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v11.i15.3560
Table 1 Clinical data of patients
Positive sign
Preoperative diagnosis
Postoperative pathology
1Male20Small amount of low-velocity blood flow signal in the tumor with heterogeneous echogenicityNoNoNoRetroperitoneal cavernous hemangiomaCavernous hemangioma (lumbar major muscle origin)[44]
2Female51NoThe edges of the mass are clear and smooth, with heterogeneous density, mild enhancement at the edge of enhancement, and nodular significant enhancement seen internallyThe lesion shows delayed marked enhancementPain in the right lower abdomen, numbness and pain in the right lower extremityNeurogenic tumor?Cavernous hemangioma[37]
3Female16NoNoNoFresh blood stools, black stools, severe anemiaHemorrhoids? Colonic vasodilatation?Cavernous hemangioma[38]
4Male35NoUniform density mass. Homogeneous enhancement is seenSmooth margins of the mass and uniform internal signalAbdominal painAdrenal tumors; tumors of vascular origin; tumors of neurological origin; adrenal pheochromocytoma?Cavernous hemangioma[39]
5Male57NoIsointense-slightly hypointense shadow of the right adrenal gland with clear margins, lobulated, heterogeneous density, nodular enhancementNoElevated blood pressureCortical cancer?(Right adrenal gland) cavernous hemangioma[19]
6Male14Clearly defined mass with internal cystic mass and no significant blood flow signalHematoma in the right adrenal regionNoNoTumor with hemorrhageHemangioma (left adrenal gland) with hemorrhagic necrosis[20]
7Male57NoUneven density massesNoLeft upper abdominal painLeft adrenocortical carcinoma, pheochromocytoma? Retroperitoneal mesenchymal-derived tumor?Hemangioma (left adrenal gland) with hemorrhagic necrosis[21]
8Female70NoClearly defined mass with heterogeneous density and scattered foci of speckled calcification at the margins; enhanced lesions with heterogeneous enhancement and multiple foci of nodular hyperenhancement at the peripheryNoAbdominal painGiant retroperitoneal occupancy with consideration of benign tumor of adrenal origin(Left adrenal) cavernous hemangioma; immunohistochemistry: Vim (+)[22]
9Female47NoThe density of the mass is uneven, and vascular shadow is seen in enhancementT1W1 low signal, T2W1 heterogeneous high signal, lesion is heterogeneously reinforced, vascular shadow is seenAbdominal distension, abdominal painMalignant tumorsCavernous hemangioma with bleeding; Immunohistochemistry: CD31 (+); CD34 (+), CD2-40 (+), ERG (+), SMA (+)[40]
10Female71Irregular hypoechoic solid occupying lesion of the pancreasHeterogeneous hypodense lesion in the pancreatic neck with clear borders and marked enhancementNoAbdominal painNoPancreatic cavernous hemangioma; immunohistochemistry: CD31 (+), CD34 (+), CD2-40 (-)[25]
11Female37Cystic solid massNoNoAbdominal painNoPancreatic cavernous hemangioma[26]
12Female63Cystic solid massNoNoAbdominal painPancreatic cancerPancreatic cavernous hemangioma with calcification and cyst formation[26]
13Male79Cystic solid mass in the head of the pancreas with clear borders, uneven internal echogenicity, scattered multiple echogenic areas, and poor blood flow signal Occupation of the head of the pancreas with lamellar enhancement and increased delayed enhancement, with multiple microvascular shadows seen withinNoAbdominal pain, abdominal distensionNoPancreatic cavernous hemangioma[27]
14Male55Cystic predominant mass in the tail of the pancreas with clear borders. Irregular shape, no obvious blood flow signalHypodense lesion in the body of the pancreasCystic occupying lesion in the body of the pancreasAbdominal painCystadenoma, cyst?Pancreatic cavernous hemangioma[28]
15Male49NoA round-like hypodense lesion is seen in the neck of the pancreas, and enhancement is seenPancreatic neck occupancy with clear margins and homogeneous signal; enhancement is not obviousPain in the lower back and lower right abdomenPancreatic cancer?Pancreatic cavernous Hemangioma[29]
16Female58NoPlain scan shows a round-like hypodense mass in the tail of the pancreas with well-defined borders, and moderate enhancement in the arterial phase and "thin thread-like" moderate enhancement in the venous and delayed phasesA round-like lesion was seen in the tail of the pancreas, with uniform low signal on T1WI and high signal on T2WI, and a little bit of slightly low signal was seen inside (DW1 showed slightly high signal, and mild to moderate patchy enhancement was seen inside the lesion)Abdominal distension, abdominal pain, jaundiceCystadenoma of the pancreasPancreatic cavernous hemangioma[30]
17Male66The envelope was intact and continuous, and multiple irregular echogenic areas were visible inside, separated by hyperechoic structuresA large round-like hypodense mass in the right upper abdomen with clear borders and nodular irregular enhancement around the mass in the arterial phaseA round abdominal abnormal signal shadow with well-defined borders, T1-weighted moderately low signal and nodular low signal in the periphery; T2-weighted mass is predominantly high signal, with striated low signal inside. After enhancement, T1-weighted nodular enhancement was seen in the periphery, and the enhancement became more obvious on delayed scan and expanded inward. There was no central enhancement on both scansSymptomlessCavernous hemangiomaAdrenal cavernous hemangioma[31]
18Female54Strongly echogenic mass in the right posterior lobe of the liver with clear boundaries and uneven internal echogenicityA rounded hypointense shadow is seen in the right adrenal area, and a more hypointense area with clear borders is visible within it; the periphery of the lesion is mildly enhancedThe oval-shaped mass between the liver and the right kidney is hyposignal on T1WI, with an eccentric more hyposignal area within it; it is high-signal on T2WI, with a well-defined border and a non-enhancing hyposignal area within itAbdominal painRetroperitoneal space-occupying lesions (malignant)Primary retroperitoneal cavernous hemangioma[34]
19Female60CysticSlightly hypointense shadow with inconspicuous enhancementNoAbdominal pain, feverCystic lesion of the tail of the pancreas. Cystic adenoma? Cystic adenocarcinoma?Pancreatic cavernous hemangioma[32]
20Female41Cystic solidNoNoMedical examinationCystic dominant cystadenoma or islet cell carcinoma in the body of the pancreasPancreatic cavernous hemangioma[32]
21Female30Cystic solidNoNoAbdominal pain, choking on foodCystic solid occupancy of the head of the pancreas is likely to be benignPancreatic cavernous hemangioma[32]
22Female57Uneven hypoechoicUneven reinforcementNoNoGastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors (GISTs), carcinoid tumors, neurogenic tumors, metastatic lymphadenopathy, or other rare tumorsRetroperitoneal cavernous hemangioma[41]
23Male*63Mixed echogenicity within the indistinct contour of the head of the pancreas, CDFI shows hyperechoic and visible blood flow within the separationA well-defined cystic mass in the head of the pancreas with foci of internal calcificationNo Abdominal pain, constipationPancreatic cavernous hemangioma[33]
24Male36Uneven echoesTumor between the dorsal head of the pancreas and right kidney without significant enhancementLower signal in the tumor, some relatively high intensity areasAbdominal painRetroperitoneal sarcomaCavernous hemangioma; Immunohistochemistry: CD31 (+), CD34 (+), CD2-40 (partially +)[42]
25Male35NoWell-defined, cyst-like masses, no enhancement of the mass wall in the arterial and portal phases, persistent hypodensity of the massNoAbdominal painBenign tumors such as lymphangioma cysts, GISTs, or primitive retroperitoneal benign tumorsPrimary retroperitoneal cavernous hemangioma; Immunohistochemistry: CD31 (+), CD34 (+), DOG1 (-), CD117 (-)[35]
26Female71NoLow density, no enhancementNoLower limb edema, dyspnea, abdominal distention, anemiaRetroperitoneal cavernous hemangioma; Immunohistochemistry: CD34 (+)[43]
27Male70NoUniform density, surrounding calcification(a) Molecular water diffusion limitation within the lesion on T2 fat-saturated weighted image; (b) high signal intensity intra-lesion region on T1 fat-saturated weighted image; (c) high signal region on enhanced T1 fat-saturated weighted image; (d) inhomogeneous enhancementPhysical examinationAdrenal cavernous hemangioma[23]
28Male67NoClearly defined mass with significant peripheral enhancement in the early arterial phaseNoBack painAdrenal tumor, pheochromocytomaAdrenal cavernous hemangioma[24]
29Male38NoCyst-like, well-enveloped tumor with mildly enhancing walls in the portal phaseNoAbdominal painPrimary retroperitoneal cavernous hemangioma; Immunohistochemistry: CD31 (+), Vim (+)[36]