Giacomet V, Erba P, Di Nello F, Coletto S, Viganò A, Zuccotti G. Proteinuria in paediatric patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. World J Clin Cases 2013; 1(1): 13-18 [PMID: 24303454 DOI: 10.12998/wjcc.v1.i1.13]
Corresponding Author of This Article
Vania Giacomet, MD, Department of Paediatrics, L Sacco Hospital, University of Milan, Via GB Grassi 74, 20157 Milan, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Vania Giacomet, Paola Erba, Francesca Di Nello, Sonia Coletto, Alessandra Viganò, GianVincenzo Zuccotti, Department of Paediatrics, L Sacco Hospital, University of Milan, 20157 Milan, Italy
ORCID number: $[AuthorORCIDs]
Author contributions: Giacomet V and Erba P wrote the review; Di Nello F and Coletto S revised the literature; Viganò A and Zuccotti G revised the review.
Correspondence to: Vania Giacomet, MD, Department of Paediatrics, L Sacco Hospital, University of Milan, Via GB Grassi 74, 20157 Milan, Italy. email@example.com
Telephone: +39-23-9042265 Fax: +39-23-9042254
Received: November 13, 2012 Revised: January 18, 2013 Accepted: March 15, 2013 Published online: April 16, 2013
In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people kidney disease is as an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Clinical features of kidney damage in HIV-infected patients range from asymptomatic microalbuminuria to nephrotic syndrome. The lack of specific clinical features despite the presence of heavy proteinuria may mask the renal involvement. Indeed, it is important in HIV patients to monitor renal function to early discover a possible kidney injury. After the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, mortality and morbidity associated to HIV-infection have shown a substantial reduction, although a variety of side effects for long-term use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, including renal toxicity, has emerged. Among more than 20 currently available antiretroviral agents, many of them can occasionally cause reversible or irreversible nephrotoxicity. At now, three antiretroviral agents, i.e., indinavir, atazanavir and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate have a well established association with direct nephrotoxicity. This review focuses on major causes of proteinuria and other pathological findings related to kidney disease in HIV-infected children and adolescents.
Core tip: Higly active antiretroviral therapy has decreased the mortality and morbidity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults and children, too. Many of the antiviral drug used can cause side effects and in particular renal toxicity. A monitoring of renal function is useful for the management of HIV-infected patients.
Citation: Giacomet V, Erba P, Di Nello F, Coletto S, Viganò A, Zuccotti G. Proteinuria in paediatric patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. World J Clin Cases 2013; 1(1): 13-18
In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people kidney disease has recently emerged as an important cause of morbidity and mortality. HIV, can cause severe kidney disease directly, including acute kidney injuries, thrombotic microangiopathies, HIV-associated nephropathy (HIV-AN), and HIV immune complex kidney disease (HIV-ICK). Likewise, many co-morbidity, such as tuberculosis, opportunistic and bacterial infections and sexually transmitted infections can cause a variety of kidney disorders that may affect the outcome of HIV infection. Rao et al divided the HIV-1-associated renal parenchymal diseases in four groups: (1) acute tubular dysfunction with electrolytes abnormalities and/or renal failure caused by infections and nephrotoxic drugs; (2) HIV glomerulophaties related to immunological abnormalities; (3) HIV-associated thrombotic microangiopathies; and (4) HIV-AN.
Before highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), an association of renal impairment with faster progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and death in HIV-infected people was demonstrated. Hence, in the United States approximately 40% of all HIV-infected children presented renal complications. Among them, 10%-15% developed a renal disease named HIV-AN[3,4]. HIV-AN has been described as a clinical and renal histological syndrome characterized by heavy proteinuria and rapid progression to end-stage kidney disease[5,6]. Histopathological findings include collapsing glomerulopathy, global or focal glomerulosclerosis, microcystic transformation of renal tubules, interstitial inflammation and hyperplasia of podocytes. A genetic predisposition was supposed on the demonstration of the unique susceptibility of African-Americans to the development of this disease, although the responsible genes have not yet been identified[8,9]. The finding of HIV-AN in children provided strong evidence that HIV-1 per se was capable of inducing renal disease independently of other confounding variables that are present in HIV-infected adults (such as heroin abuse).
Clinical features of kidney damage in HIV-infected patients range from asymptomatic microalbuminuria to full-blown nephrotic syndrome. Children with HIV-related kidney disease may also develop acute kidney injury, thrombotic microangiopathies (including atypical forms of haemolytic uraemic syndrome) and some may progress to chronic kidney disease (CKD). The most common presentation is nephrotic syndrome, followed by anasarca and moderate range proteinuria. Edema and hypertension, in accordance with reports from adults, are rare in children with kidney disease. The lack of clinical features despite the presence of heavy proteinuria may mask the renal involvement. Indeed, it is important in HIV-infected patients to monitor renal function to early discover a possible kidney injury.
After the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, mortality and morbidity associated to HIV-infection have shown a substantial reduction, although a variety of side effects for long-term use of HAART, including renal toxicity, has emerged[12,13].
Among more than 20 currently available antiretroviral agents, many of them can occasionally cause reversible or irreversible nephrotoxicity. Many of the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, particularly older agents like didanosine, have been implicated as a cause of type B lactic acidosis, but this acid-base imbalance is not, strictly speaking, renal toxicity. Only three antiretroviral agents, i.e., indinavir, atazanavir (ATV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) have a well established association with direct nephrotoxicity.
Indinavir is an antiretroviral agent belonging to the protease inhibitor class. It was among the first agents used as a part of potent combination HAART and the most commonly protease inhibitor used in 1996, but nowadays, because of its inconvenient dosing, meal restrictions and nephrolithiasis, it is only rarely prescribed. Indinavir notoriously causes renal and urologic toxicity mediated by tubular crystallization[14,15]. Guidelines recommend that patients receiving indinavir drink at least 1.5 L of water a day and that periodic urinalysis and monitoring of serum creatinine concentration be performed.
ATV is a newer antiretroviral agent belonging to the protease inhibitor class characterized by an excellent tolerability and a potent efficacy in controlling HIV infection. It is poorly soluble in urine and easily precipitating at alkaline pH. In contrast to indinavir, clinically significant crystalluria and associated interstitial nephritis were not observed in patients treated with ATV, whereas several reports described ATV nephrolithiasis[16,17]. Two recent publications estimated the relation between CKD and antiretroviral drug use in HIV-positive patients. Mocroft et al analysed a cohort of 225 subjects showing that 3.3% persons progressed to CKD during 21 482 persons-year follow-up, thus resulting in CKD incidence of 1.05 per 100 person-year follow up. After adjusting for traditional risk factor associated with CKD and other confounding variables, increasing cumulative exposure to ATV (IRR 1.21, 95%CI: 1.09-1.34) and lopinavir/r were associated with a significant increased risk rate of CKD. Dauchy et al in the Aquitaine cohort demonstrated that the use of ATV is associated with an increased risk of proximal renal tubular dysfunction (1.28 per year of exposure). Lastly Rockwood examinated the development of renal stones in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals attending the Chelsea and Westminster Hospital Foundation Trust exposed to different antiretrovirals. The rate of development of renal stones in the ATV/r group (n = 1206) compared with efavirenz-lopinavir/r-darunavir/r combined group (n = 4449) was 7.3 per 1000 patients years of antiretroviral therapy exposure (95%CI: 4.7-10.8). Thus ATV/r renal stones should be considered as a potential comorbidity.
TDF is a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor. It is currently widely used due to its excellent properties, combining good potency, tolerability and convenience, either as a single agent or co-formulated with emtricitabine or with emtricitabine plus efavirenz. TDF showed a relatively good safety profile in registrational clinical trials, but subsequently a number of reports have alerted about cases of tubular damage and occasionally of renal insufficiency in patients treated with TDF[22-24]. The pathogenesis of renal damage caused by TDF remains unclear[25,26]. Reviews of reported cases of TDF-associated nephrotoxicity suggest that it mostly manifests as proximal tubular injury with associated reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Patients often develop glycosuria, tubular proteinuria, lowered serum phosphate and increased serum creatinine. Some patients may develop frank Fanconi’s syndrome or reduced bone mineral density. Thus, it is important to early and accurately diagnose TDF-associated nephrotoxicity. If many data are available for adult patients, the renal safety of TDF in HIV-infected children and adolescents has not been well documented. Although sporadic cases of renal toxicity have been reported in HIV-infected children treated with TDF, a report describes renal safety outcome after 96 wk of use of tenofovir in HIV-infected children and adolescents. The findings suggest that 96-wk use of TDF is not associated with any impairment of glomerular and tubular renal function in children with normal renal function at baseline. According to another 60 mo follow-up study in HIV-infected children, adolescents and young adults treated with TDF, this antiretroviral drug has an excellent renal safety profile. It stands to reason that TDF renal safety needs to be further evaluated in children, in particular in those who may be at higher risk as a result of pre-existing renal disease and concomitant use of nephrotoxic drugs. Moreover, given the need for long-term exposure to antiretroviral therapy in HIV pediatric patients, the renal safety of TDF could be better defined by longer observational studies.
Early detection and treatment of potentially serious kidney problems are especially critical for people living with HIV, since many of these cases are reversible or their evolution can be slowed if recognized in time[30,31].
NEPHROPATHY AND DIAGNOSTIC TESTS
With the exception of the rather dramatic clinical presentations seen with a severe or complete loss of kidney function, many kidney disorders are asymptomatic or the symptoms are non-specific, such as fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, headache, etc. For this reason, many kidney disorders can only be recognized with laboratory tests. The biomarkers currently used to detect kidney injury or monitor kidney function have limited sensitivity or dubious accuracy and have not been well studied in HIV-infected people, according to a recent review by Post et al. Other markers, which may provide a better and earlier indication of specific forms of kidney damage, including tenofovir-related proximal tubule damage, are being investigated.
HIV-infected people can present with the classic clinical features of the nephrotic syndrome, such as heavy proteinuria, edema and hypoalbuminemia. The renal disease may also be clinically manifested by persistent and isolated proteinuria. CKD is determined by the presence of kidney damage, indicated by albuminuria or proteinuria, or GFR below 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 for ≥ 3 mo. Kidney disease and GFR are directly correlated, and the latter typically decreases before the onset of symptoms of kidney failure. Several equations to calculate GFR exist. The Cockcroft-Gault equation, which uses the 24-h urine creatinine clearance as indirect reference method, was the first and most attractive formula validated in adults. However, the need of body weight in the equation has greatly limited its practicability for widely use in renal medicine. Subsequently, the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equation adjusted for four variables (age, gender, serum creatinine and ethnicity) was validated by Levey et al. In addition, the same author recommended that the constant factor used in the original equation should be re-expressed using a new constant, if creatinine measurement is standardized against Isotope Dilution-Mass Spectrometry (reference method). Extensive evaluation of the MDRD study equation shows good performance in population with lower levels of eGFR but variable performance in those with higher levels. To overcome the above mentioned pitfalls, the MDRD equation was revisited again by its original author and modified into a new equation: the CKD epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Therefore, it was suggested to replace the MDRD equation with CKD-EPI in clinical use in adults.
In children over 12 years of age, the Cockcroft-Gault equation is the most frequently used. For children under 12 years of age, Schwartz formula enables to calculate GFR using length in place of weight. Although these equations are used in clinical practice as well as in several studies conducted in HIV-infected children and adults to evaluate GFR, none of them have been really validated in these cohorts of patients.
The diagnosis of kidney injury may include albuminuria and proteinuria testing. Proteinuria is believed to be the earliest and most consistent clinical finding for the diagnosis of HIV-AN[39,40]. Han et al have reported the presence of microalbuminuria as an early marker of HIV-AN in adults. Urine albumin-to creatinine ratios (ACR) or protein-to-creatinine ratios (PCR) are reproducible measurements of proteinuria. Micro and macroalbuminuria are defined by ACRs > 30 mg/g and > 300 mg/g, respectively, while significant proteinuria is defined by a PCR > 200 mg/g. While albuminuria is more specific to glomerular injury (such as is seen in HIV-AN), proteinuria, that predominately includes albumin with other proteins, can be an indicator of either a glomerular or tubular defect. The most widely available tests that screen for proteinuria and albuminuria are urine dipstick test. However, a recent study has demonstrated that the sensitivity of dipstick test, may be affected by urinary concentration. So dipstick tests may miss about one out of five people with kidney disease, and positive dipstick test results for proteinuria may have to be confirmed by other lab tests. Dipstick test has been efficiently used by Ray et al in association with other tests to diagnose HIV-AN through the following criteria: (1) persistent proteinuria, defined as an albustix reading above 1+ or a urinary protein-to-creatinine clearance ratio more than 0.1 for more than 2 mo in the absence of acute infection episodes; (2) abnormal microscopic examination of the urinary sediment under similar conditions, which in some cases included the presence of urine microcysts; (3) presence of enlarged echogenic kidneys detected by renal ultrasonography in at least two different studies performed 2 mo apart; and (4) black race and clinical history consistent with the typical diagnosis of HIV-AN (i.e., nephrotic-range proteinuria without significant oedema and/or severe hypertension). Nephrotic range proteinuria has been defined by Ramsuran et al as a PCR of ≥ 2.0 and by Chaparro et al as a PCR of > 1.0.
Proteinuria in children is an important prognostic factor for HIV-associated renal disease, and it needs to be assessed in follow-up to diagnose concurrent potentially progressive renal disease. As much as one third of the population may present proteinuria, but no more than 10% generally have a real nephropathy, defined as nephrotic-range proteinuria, which may benefit of HAART or angiotensin blockade therapy. Surveillance of quantitative proteinuria in conjunction with imaging and chemical indicators of renal dysfunction is very much warranted. It seems reasonable to propose nephrotic range proteinuria as a major criterion for defining the clinical nephropathy in children and would be a clear indication for renal biopsy and initiation of HAART in naive patients[44,45]. Biopsy diagnosis can reveal the typical histological features of minimal change nephrotic syndrome, mesangioproliferative glomerular lesions, and “lupus-like” renal lesions[3,10,39,46,47]. Other patients show renal changes consistent with the diagnosis of HIV-AN or HIV-ICK. Thus, performing a renal biopsy is the only way to establish a definitive diagnosis.
People with kidney disease localized in the renal tubule such as Fanconi’s syndrome may have mild proteinuria composed of other proteins but rarely of albumin. The presence of renal tubular disorders in HIV-infected African American and Venezuelan patients has been recognized through hypercalciuria with a potential for nephrocalcinosis, and less frequently with crystalluria, hyperchloremia, and metabolic acidosis[3,10,39]. Tubular disorders may induce sodium, potassium, and phosphate wasting states. Elevated fractional urinary excretion of phosphate is perhaps an earlier marker of proximal tubular dysfunction and might be useful in monitoring for TDF toxicity.
Besides proteinuria, there are a number of other biomarkers that could potentially be more specific for tubular inflammation or damage and that may serve as earlier and better indications of which patients are likely to experience tenofovir-associated toxicity. Post et al note that since the proximal tubule is supposed to reabsorb substances such as low molecular weight proteins, increased excretion of these in the urine could indicate tubular dysfunction[48,49]. Tests for these markers are not yet affordable or widely available and research into the use of these substances as biomarkers for renal tubule disorders is still in its infancy. Therefore it would be worth underline that a urine high PCR in conjunction with a normal or low urine albumine-to-creatinine ratio may identify patients with renal tubular disorders. Thus, the assessment of these markers may be very useful to discover the proximal tubular dysfunction induced by TDF exposure.
In the meantime, studies using these markers as evidence of kidney damage should be interpreted with caution.
Table 1 is provided to summarize the different features of proteinuria in different HIV-associated kidney diseases in children.
Table 1 Features of proteinuria in different human immunodeficiency virus-associated kidney diseases in children.
Type of proteinuria
Proteinuria: Urine protein to creatinine ratio > 200 mg/g
HIV associated nephropathy
Microalbuminuria: Urine albumine to creatinine ratio > 30 mg/g
Macroalbuminuria: Urine albumine to creatinine ratio > 300 mg/g
Proteinuria: Urine protein to creatinine ratio > 200 mg/g
Infections or atazanavir use
Urine albumine to creatinine ratio < 30 mg/g
Proteinuria: Urine protein to creatinine ratio > 200 mg/g
Fanconi syndrome associated with tenofovir use
Urine albumine to creatinine ratio < 30 mg/g
Glycosuria with normal glycemia
Increased fraction excretion of phosphorus
Reduced fraction excretion of uric acid
HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus.
A prompt diagnosis of nephrotoxicity due to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients allows to take rapid steps to mitigate damage to the kidney. It is also important to distinguish it from other causes of HIV-associated renal diseases. The collaboration with a nephrologists, the close monitoring of renal function and the biopsy in case of progressive renal disease allow to establish an accurate diagnosis.
P- Reviewer Koubaa M S- Editor Gou SX L- Editor A E- Editor Zheng XM
Rao TK, Friedman EA, Nicastri AD. The types of renal disease in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.N Engl J Med. 1987;316:1062-1068.
Winston JA, Burns GC, Klotman PE. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and HIV-associated nephropathy.Semin Nephrol. 1998;18:373-377.
Ray PE, Rakusan T, Loechelt BJ, Selby DM, Liu XH, Chandra RS. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy in children from the Washington, D.C. area: 12 years’ experience.Semin Nephrol. 1998;18:396-405.
McCulloch MI, Ray PE. Kidney disease in HIV-positive children.Semin Nephrol. 2008;28:585-594.
Ross MJ, Klotman PE. Recent progress in HIV-associated nephropathy.J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002;13:2997-3004.
Ray PE. Taking a hard look at the pathogenesis of childhood HIV-associated nephropathy.Pediatr Nephrol. 2009;24:2109-2119.
Genovese G, Friedman DJ, Ross MD, Lecordier L, Uzureau P, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Langefeld CD, Oleksyk TK, Uscinski Knob AL. Association of trypanolytic ApoL1 variants with kidney disease in African Americans.Science. 2010;329:841-845.
Wyatt CM, Meliambro K, Klotman PE. Recent progress in HIV-associated nephropathy.Annu Rev Med. 2012;63:147-159.
Ray PE, Xu L, Rakusan T, Liu XH. A 20-year history of childhood HIV-associated nephropathy.Pediatr Nephrol. 2004;19:1075-1092.
Han TM, Naicker S, Ramdial PK, Assounga AG. A cross-sectional study of HIV-seropositive patients with varying degrees of proteinuria in South Africa.Kidney Int. 2006;69:2243-2250.
Boyd MA. Improvements in antiretroviral therapy outcomes over calendar time.Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2009;4:194-199.
Cooper RD, Tonelli M. Renal disease associated with antiretroviral therapy in the treatment of HIV.Nephron Clin Pract. 2011;118:c262-c268.
Kopp JB, Miller KD, Mican JA, Feuerstein IM, Vaughan E, Baker C, Pannell LK, Falloon J. Crystalluria and urinary tract abnormalities associated with indinavir.Ann Intern Med. 1997;127:119-125.
Kopp JB, Falloon J, Filie A, Abati A, King C, Hortin GL, Mican JM, Vaughan E, Miller KD. Indinavir-associated interstitial nephritis and urothelial inflammation: clinical and cytologic findings.Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:1122-1128.
Anderson PL, Lichtenstein KA, Gerig NE, Kiser JJ, Bushman LR. Atazanavir-containing renal calculi in an HIV-infected patient.AIDS. 2007;21:1060-1062.
Couzigou C, Daudon M, Meynard JL, Borsa-Lebas F, Higueret D, Escaut L, Zucman D, Liotier JY, Quencez JL, Asselah K. Urolithiasis in HIV-positive patients treated with atazanavir.Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:e105-e108.
Mocroft A, Kirk O, Reiss P, De Wit S, Sedlacek D, Beniowski M, Gatell J, Phillips AN, Ledergerber B, Lundgren JD. Estimated glomerular filtration rate, chronic kidney disease and antiretroviral drug use in HIV-positive patients.AIDS. 2010;24:1667-1678.
Dauchy FA, Lawson-Ayayi S, de La Faille R, Bonnet F, Rigothier C, Mehsen N, Miremont-Salamé G, Cazanave C, Greib C, Dabis F. Increased risk of abnormal proximal renal tubular function with HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy.Kidney Int. 2011;80:302-309.
Rockwood N, Mandalia S, Bower M, Gazzard B, Nelson M. Ritonavir-boosted atazanavir exposure is associated with an increased rate of renal stones compared with efavirenz, ritonavir-boosted lopinavir and ritonavir-boosted darunavir.AIDS. 2011;25:1671-1673.
Rodriguez-Nóvoa S, Alvarez E, Labarga P, Soriano V. Renal toxicity associated with tenofovir use.Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2010;9:545-559.
Karras A, Lafaurie M, Furco A, Bourgarit A, Droz D, Sereni D, Legendre C, Martinez F, Molina JM. Tenofovir-related nephrotoxicity in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: three cases of renal failure, Fanconi syndrome, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36:1070-1073.
Malik A, Abraham P, Malik N. Acute renal failure and Fanconi syndrome in an AIDS patient on tenofovir treatment--case report and review of literature.J Infect. 2005;51:E61-E65.
Young B, Buchacz K, Moorman A, Wood KC, Brooks JT. Renal function in patients with preexisting renal disease receiving tenofovir-containing highly active antiretroviral therapy in the HIV outpatient study.AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2009;23:589-592.
Woodward CL, Hall AM, Williams IG, Madge S, Copas A, Nair D, Edwards SG, Johnson MA, Connolly JO. Tenofovir-associated renal and bone toxicity.HIV Med. 2009;10:482-487.
Rodríguez-Nóvoa S, Labarga P, Soriano V, Egan D, Albalater M, Morello J, Cuenca L, González-Pardo G, Khoo S, Back D. Predictors of kidney tubular dysfunction in HIV-infected patients treated with tenofovir: a pharmacogenetic study.Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:e108-e116.
Gupta SK, Eustace JA, Winston JA, Boydstun II, Ahuja TS, Rodriguez RA, Tashima KT, Roland M, Franceschini N, Palella FJ. Guidelines for the management of chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected patients: recommendations of the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40:1559-1585.
Viganò A, Zuccotti GV, Martelli L, Giacomet V, Cafarelli L, Borgonovo S, Beretta S, Rombolà G, Mora S. Renal safety of tenofovir in HIV-infected children: a prospective, 96-week longitudinal study.Clin Drug Investig. 2007;27:573-581.
Viganò A, Bedogni G, Manfredini V, Giacomet V, Cerini C, di Nello F, Penagini F, Caprio C, Zuccotti GV. Long-term renal safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in vertically HIV-infected children, adolescents and young adults: a 60-month follow-up study.Clin Drug Investig. 2011;31:407-415.
Choi AI, Shlipak MG, Hunt PW, Martin JN, Deeks SG. HIV-infected persons continue to lose kidney function despite successful antiretroviral therapy.AIDS. 2009;23:2143-2149.
Reid A, Stöhr W, Walker AS, Williams IG, Kityo C, Hughes P, Kambugu A, Gilks CF, Mugyenyi P, Munderi P. Severe renal dysfunction and risk factors associated with renal impairment in HIV-infected adults in Africa initiating antiretroviral therapy.Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:1271-1281.
Post FA, Wyatt CM, Mocroft A. Biomarkers of impaired renal function.Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2010;5:524-530.
Levey AS, de Jong PE, Coresh J, El Nahas M, Astor BC, Matsushita K, Gansevoort RT, Kasiske BL, Eckardt KU. The definition, classification, and prognosis of chronic kidney disease: a KDIGO Controversies Conference report.Kidney Int. 2011;80:17-28.
Levey AS. Measurement of renal function in chronic renal disease.Kidney Int. 1990;38:167-184.
Levey AS, Greene T, Kusek J, Beck G. A simplified equation to predict glomerular filtration from serum creatinine.J Am Soc Nephrol. 2000;11:155A.
Coresh J, Stevens LA. Kidney function estimating equations: where do we stand.Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2006;15:276-284.
Levey AS, Stevens LA, Schmid CH, Zhang YL, Castro AF, Feldman HI, Kusek JW, Eggers P, Van Lente F, Greene T. A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate.Ann Intern Med. 2009;150:604-612.
National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification.Am J Kidney Dis. 2002;39:S1-266.
Lucas GM, Eustace JA, Sozio S, Mentari EK, Appiah KA, Moore RD. Highly active antiretroviral therapy and the incidence of HIV-1-associated nephropathy: a 12-year cohort study.AIDS. 2004;18:541-546.
Siedner MJ, Atta MG, Lucas GM, Perazella MA, Fine DM. Poor validity of urine dipstick as a screening tool for proteinuria in HIV-positive patients.J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008;47:261-263.
Ramsuran D, Bhimma R, Ramdial PK, Naicker E, Adhikari M, Deonarain J, Sing Y, Naicker T. The spectrum of HIV-related nephropathy in children.Pediatr Nephrol. 2012;27:821-827.
Chaparro AI, Mitchell CD, Abitbol CL, Wilkinson JD, Baldarrago G, Lopez E, Zilleruelo G. Proteinuria in children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.J Pediatr. 2008;152:844-849.
Szczech LA, Gupta SK, Habash R, Guasch A, Kalayjian R, Appel R, Fields TA, Svetkey LP, Flanagan KH, Klotman PE. The clinical epidemiology and course of the spectrum of renal diseases associated with HIV infection.Kidney Int. 2004;66:1145-1152.
Atta MG, Gallant JE, Rahman MH, Nagajothi N, Racusen LC, Scheel PJ, Fine DM. Antiretroviral therapy in the treatment of HIV-associated nephropathy.Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2006;21:2809-2813.
Haas M, Kaul S, Eustace JA. HIV-associated immune complex glomerulonephritis with “lupus-like” features: a clinicopathologic study of 14 cases.Kidney Int. 2005;67:1381-1390.
Wyatt CM, Klotman PE. HIV-1 and HIV-Associated Nephropathy 25 Years Later.Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;2 Suppl 1:S20-S24.
Odden MC, Scherzer R, Bacchetti P, Szczech LA, Sidney S, Grunfeld C, Shlipak MG. Cystatin C level as a marker of kidney function in human immunodeficiency virus infection: the FRAM study.Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:2213-2219.
Shlipak MG, Katz R, Kestenbaum B, Fried LF, Newman AB, Siscovick DS, Stevens L, Sarnak MJ. Rate of kidney function decline in older adults: a comparison using creatinine and cystatin C.Am J Nephrol. 2009;30:171-178.
Wyatt CM, Shi Q, Novak JE, Hoover DR, Szczech L, Mugabo JS, Binagwaho A, Cohen M, Mutimura E, Anastos K. Prevalence of kidney disease in HIV-infected and uninfected Rwandan women.PLoS One. 2011;6:e18352.