Copyright ©The Author(s) 2017.
World J Psychiatr. Mar 22, 2017; 7(1): 60-76
Published online Mar 22, 2017. doi: 10.5498/wjp.v7.i1.60
Table 5 Strength of evidence for a causal relationship between bullying victimization and adverse health or psychosocial problems
Strength of evidenceAdverse health or psychosocial problem
ConvincingAnxiety; depression; poor mental health; poor general health; non-suicidal self-injury; suicide attempts; suicide ideation
ProbableTobacco use; illicit drug use
PossibleAlcohol use; psychotic symptoms; increased use of health services in females; lower academic achievement; social isolation; loneliness; psychosomatic symptoms, overweight and obesity
InsufficientBinge eating; bulimia nervosa; borderline personality disorder; behavioural problems; carrying a weapon; general medication use; health services sought; poor financial and occupational functioning; psychotropic medication use; poor school functioning; sexual behavioural problems; poor life satisfaction