Copyright ©The Author(s) 2021.
World J Psychiatr. Apr 19, 2021; 11(4): 94-108
Published online Apr 19, 2021. doi: 10.5498/wjp.v11.i4.94
Table 1 Review of primary literature on coronavirus disease 2019 global health disparities
Vulnerable population
Type of study
Country or region
Key mental health findings
El Hayek et al[5], 2020 Mature adultsThirteen country case studies by thirteen early career psychiatristsArab Countries in the Middle East North Africa RegionGeneral lack of mental health services for geriatric population during the COVID-19 pandemic
Proto and Quintana-Domeque[28], 2021Ethnic minorities Longitudinal survey United KingdomBangladeshi, Pakistani, and Indian individuals experienced significant increase in mental health distress than general population
Czeisler et al[29], 2020Ethnic minorities Cross sectional surveyUnited StatesSignificant higher suicide rates in ethnic minorities having considered suicide in the past 30 d before completing survey during COVID-19 pandemic
Lassale et al[31], 2020Ethnic minorities Cohort studyUnited KingdomGreater psychological distress experienced by Asians after hospitalization for COVID-19 than general population
Newby et al[39], 2020 Ethnic minorities Longitudinal surveyAustraliaSignificant higher anxiety and distress in individuals with self-reported history of mental health diagnosis than those without a mental health diagnosis
Lee and Waters[45], 2020Ethnic minorities Longitudinal surveyUnited States Over 40% of Asian Americans reported increase in anxiety, depressive symptoms and sleep difficulties during the COVID-19 pandemic
Gómez-Ramiro et al[54], 2020Children with autism and developmental disordersRetrospective study Spain Significant increase in acute psychiatric hospitalizations during COVID-19 lockdown
Nadler et al[65], 2021 Children with autism and developmental disordersCase studyUnited StatesCase study of child with autism and behavioral health concerns examines limited psychosocial support and availability during the COVID-19 pandemic
Bishop[69], 2020 Sexual gender minoritiesQualitative studyGlobalInterviews with 59 SGM from 38 countries; majority showed increased isolation and anxiety
Suen et al[73], 2020Sexual gender minoritiesCommunity based surveyHong Kong (China)SGM are particularly vulnerable to poor mental health outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic
Peterson et al[74], 2020 Sexual gender minoritiesCross sectional, convenience sample surveyUnited StatesGreater psychological distress in SGM. A large number of bisexual individuals in the sample may have magnified the differences between SGM and sexual-majority groups
Durankuş and Aksu[77], 2020Pregnant womenCross sectional survey TurkeyHigher depression scores on Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale in pregnant women than control group during COVID-19 pandemic
Liu et al[80], 2021Pregnant women Cross sectional survey United StatesStudy on pregnant women and women who recently gave birth. Women with self-reported psychiatric diagnoses were 1.6-to-3.7 more likely to score at clinically significant levels of depression, generalized anxiety, and PTSD
Corbett et al[81], 2020 Pregnant womenPreliminary cross-sectional surveyIrelandPregnant women surveyed described heightened anxiety over COVID-19 affecting older adults, their children and their unborn baby
Saccone et al[82], 2020 Pregnant womenCross sectional survey ItalyMore than half of pregnant respondents rated psychological impact of COVID-19 as severe
Wang et al[83], 2020Female genderCross sectional surveyChina Increased psychological impact on female gender and having a poor self-rated health status
Liu et al[85], 2020Female genderCross sectional surveyChinaFemale respondents had higher negative cognitions on posttraumatic stress symptoms than males
Berthelot et al[87], 2020Pregnant womenLongitudinal cohort surveyCanada Pregnant women assessed during the COVID-19 pandemic reported more prenatal stress and psychiatric symptoms than pre-pandemic cohort
Lebel et al[88], 2020Pregnant womenCross sectional survey Canada Higher symptoms of depression and anxiety in pregnant women were associated with greater concern about COVID-19 threatening the life of the mother and baby
Taquet et al[113], 2021Psychiatric vs non psychiatric population Retrospective medical record network study United StatesPsychiatric diagnosis might be considered an independent risk factor for COVID-19 illness.
Logue et al[114], 2021Psychiatric vs non psychiatric populationLongitudinal prospective cohort surveyUnited States2.3% of respondents reported “brain fog” at 6 mo post COVID-19 infection