Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Immunol. Nov 27, 2015; 5(3): 113-130
Published online Nov 27, 2015. doi: 10.5411/wji.v5.i3.113
Table 1 Dendritic cells and the maintenance of homeostasis in different tissues
TissueLocationResident DC in naïve tissueResident associated cells/naïve tissueStromal/cellular interactions in immune homeostasisRef.
SkinEpidermisCd1a+ Langerin+ Langerhans cells expressing Birbeck granulesKeratinocytesE-cadherin junctions with keratinocytes, TGF-β production, tolerogenic Treg responses[6, 40-42]
DermisCD1c+ DC-SIGN+ DEC205+ dermal DC subsets (Langerin+ CD11blow, Langerin-CD11b-, and Langerin-CD11blow)To be elucidated (presumed dermal matrix, fibroblasts)Pluripotent dermal DC may present antigen, migrate or reside in tissue depending on local interactions[69, 144]
Intestinal mucosaLP, Peyer’s patches, GALT, SILTCD103+CD11b+ or CD103+ CD11b-migratory DC, CD103+Sirpα- DC, pDC, CX3CR1+ DCMacrophages, B cellsMaintain immune homeostasis, induce Treg differentiation, oral tolerance (TGF-β, Treg, TH2 factors)[5, 48-50, 145, 146]
Gut: Retinoic acid, TH17 cells
LP: indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase
CD83 on DC regulates mucosal tolerance
LiverPortal tracts, interstitial DCCD103+DC, CD103-DC, CD103-CD11b+DC, CD141+ DC (high in healthy liver)Hepatic stellate cells, sinusoidal endothelial cells, Kupffer cells, hepatocytesInhibit DC activation (indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase expression), repress T cell activation (IL-10, TGF-β) via CTLA-4, PD-1[4, 51, 52,147,148]
CorneaCentral/peripheral corneal stromaCD11b+ CD11c+ DC, B220+ CD11clo pDC, CD34+ MHCII myeloid precursorsStromal Collagen I, CD11b+ CD11c- macrophages, keratocytesMaintain MHCIIlow CD80low CD86low phenotype under normal conditions[54-57]
SpleenMarginal zonesLymphoid, myeloid and pDCMacrophages, T cells, B cells (zone dependant)To be elucidated[58-60]
Bone marrowOsteoblastic or vascular nichesResident hematopoietic stem cell DC progenitorsOsteoblasts, stromal cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells-[61]
RetinaPeripheral margins and juxtapapillary areasPresence of DCs is debated.Likely migrated in from choroid, ciliary body and meningesPerivasulcar - around retinal venules (initial site of immune disruption), but not arterioles.[149]
Few MHCII+ 33D1+ DC observed in naïve brain
BrainRegions of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesisPresence of DCs is debated.--[62,63,150]
Brain-derived CD11c+ DC
Bone/cartilage/vitreousNot detected----