Copyright ©The Author(s) 2018.
World J Orthop. Nov 18, 2018; 9(11): 255-261
Published online Nov 18, 2018. doi: 10.5312/wjo.v9.i11.255
Figure 5
Figure 5 Mechanisms of heme oxygenase-1 upregulation by carnosic acid. CA induces the expression of HO-1 by: Activation of the Nrf2 transcription factor, downregulation of Bach1 via miR-140 and downregulation of the IL-1β-induced expression of extracellular matrix degrading enzymes such as MMP-13 and ADAMTS-5. CA: Carnosic acid; HO-1: Heme oxygenase-1; Nrf2: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2; IL: Interleukin; MMP: Matrix metalloproteinase; ADAMTS: A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs; miR-140: MicroRNA 140.