Copyright ©2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Co.
World J Cardiol. Feb 26, 2014; 6(2): 38-66
Published online Feb 26, 2014. doi: 10.4330/wjc.v6.i2.38
Figure 5
Figure 5 Immune vascular dysfunction. Stimulation of the angiotensin receptor and toll like receptors and other and direct stimulation of T cells on the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle lead to immune dysfunction, inflammation and oxidative stress. TLR: Toll like receptors; IL: Interleukin; TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor alpha.