Copyright ©2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc.
World J Diabetes. Aug 15, 2014; 5(4): 536-545
Published online Aug 15, 2014. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v5.i4.536
Table 1 Studies which observed glucose reduction carvedilol
Ref.Study designParticipantsMain results
Ehmer et al[30]Prospective randomized open parallel group trial49 non-insulin-dependent diabetics with mild to moderate HTN (carvedilol n = 25, metoprolol n = 24)Blood glucose concentrations were maintained within narrow limits. Glycated haemoglobin A1 remained unchanged. There was a reduction in blood pressure in both groups
Giugliano et al[12]Prospective single-blind randomized trial45 patients with non-insulin-dependent DM and HTN (carvedilol n = 23, atenolol n = 22)Patients treated with carvedilol had improved glucose and lipid metabolism and reduced lipid perioxidation compared to atenolol. Both reduced blood pressure
Bakris et al[11]Prospective double-blind randomized trialGEMINI study, 1235 patients with HTN and T2DM (carvedilol n = 498, metoprolol tartrate n = 737)The mean glycosylated hemoglobin increased with metoprolol, but not with carvedilol. An improvement of insulin sensitivity was seen with carvedilol but not with metoprolol
Phillips et al[32]Prospective double-blind randomized trialGEMINI study 1235 patients with HTN and T2DM (carvedilol n = 498, metoprolol tartrate n = 737)After and adjustment for age carvedilol was superior than metoprolol reducing baseline glycosylated hemoglobin and also in female patients. In black people carvedilol showed a reduction in IR greater than metoprolol
Kveiborg et al[40]Prospective randomized open parallel group trial19 patients with T2DM (metoprolol succinate n = 10, carvedilol n = 9) and 10 controlsTreatment with carvedilol did not change insulin-stimulated endothelial function, whereas it deteriorated with metoprolol
Torp-Pedersen et al[46]Prospective double-blind randomized trial3029 patients with chronic heart failure and T2DM (carvedilol n = 1511, metoprolol tartrate n = 1518)Fewer patients treated with carvedilol developed T2DM than with metoprolol
Wai et al[47]Observational cohort trial125 patients with T2DM and heart failure (carvedilol n = 80, bisoprolol n = 45)Carvedilol significantly improved glycemic control in subjects with heart failure and T2DM
Basat et al[48]Prospective double-blind randomized trial59 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (carvedilol n = 26, metoprolol n = 31)After myocardial infarction, carvedilol added to background therapy improved insulin resistance and lipid profile