Copyright ©2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc.
World J Hepatol. Oct 27, 2014; 6(10): 745-751
Published online Oct 27, 2014. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v6.i10.745
Table 3 Grading system and representative management strategies for bile leakage
GradesDefinitionManagement strategies
Grade ANo change in the patient’s clinical management strategy required or manageable with simple drainageDrainage within 7 d Antibiotic administration
Grade BManageable with interventional proceduresDrainage for 7 or more day, ethanol injection, fibrin paste injection, single ENBD, single EBD, single PTBD, PTPE, TAE
Grade CCases involving pneumoperitoneum, inflammation, multiple organ failure, or reoperationComplicated IVR (combinations with any Grade Bs) Reoperation