Copyright ©The Author(s) 2018.
World J Hepatol. Jan 27, 2018; 10(1): 142-154
Published online Jan 27, 2018. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v10.i1.142
Figure 1
Figure 1 The immunomodulatory effects of 1,25(OH)2D3. 1,25(OH)2D3 targets different players of the innate and adaptive immune compartment. 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulates innate immune responses by enhancing the chemotactic and phagocytotic responses of macrophages, as well as the production of antimicrobial proteins such as cathelicidin. On the other hand, 1,25(OH)2D3 also modulates adaptive immunity. At the level of the APC (like the DC), 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibits the surface expression of the MHC-II-complexed antigen and co-stimulatory molecules, in addition to the production of the cytokines IL-12 and IL-23, thereby indirectly shifting the polarization of T cells from a Th1 and Th17 phenotype towards a Th2 phenotype. In addition, 1,25(OH)2D3 directly affects T cell responses, by inhibiting the production of Th1 cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th17 cytokines (IL-17 and IL-21), and by stimulating Th2 cytokine production (IL-4). Moreover, 1,25(OH)2D3 favors Treg cell development via modulation of DCs and by directly targeting T cells. Finally, 1,25(OH)2D3 blocks plasma cell differentiation, IgG and IgM production, and B cell proliferation. Reproduced with the permission of the Nature Publishing Group[52].