Copyright ©2009 Baishideng.
World J Hepatol. Oct 31, 2009; 1(1): 48-61
Published online Oct 31, 2009. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v1.i1.48
Table 4 Immunohistochemistry for HCC
MarkerStaining patternDiagnostic useDiagnostic valueRef.
AFPSpecific for HCC CytoplasmExpressed in HCC cells cytoplasm but also in: fetal liver, hepatoid tumors, germ cells tumorsSensitivity 17%-68%[89-104]
Specificity 97%
GP-3Specific for HCC CytoplasmExpressed in HCC cell cytoplasm (less so if fibrolamellar or sarcomatoid variants) but also in: fetal liver, hepatoblastoma, melanomaSensitivity 49%-91%[81,109-115]
Specificity 89%-100%
CD-34EndotheliumSurface of normal endothelium and HCC trabeculae or acini but also in: myelodysplasia in transformation, GI stromal tumors (high coexpression with bcl-2)HCC positivity 82%[117]
p-CEABiliary canaliculaIdentifies biliary glycoprotein 1 on hepatocyte canalicular pole and cholangiocyte. Useful for differential diagnosis vs cholangiocarcinoma, other adenocarcinomaHCC positivity 24%-90%[94,98,100,118-128]
CD-10Biliary canaliculaSurface of biliary tract cells and in HCC, but also positive in: B cell lymphomas, renal cells carcinoma, melanoma, prostate and pancreas adenocarcinoma. Useful for differential diagnosis vs cholangiocarcinoma, other adenocarcinomasHCC positivity 28%-86%[94,98,100,119,120,122-124,126,128]
Ki67 HepPar1Cell proliferation marker HCC & normal Hepatocyte citoplasmAssessing cell proliferation rate, correlates with tumor grade and clinical course. Useful to differentiate between HCC and hepatic adenomaHCC positivity rate 10%-50%[129]
Expressed in HCC and in normal liver cells, but also in hepatoblastoma. useful for differential diagnosis vs cholangiocarcinoma and metastasesHCC positivity 66%-100%[130-136]
CytokeratinsEpithelial cellsUseful for differential diagnosis vs cholangiocarcinoma. HCC profile: CK7/CK19/CK8/CK18 = - / - / + / +HCC positivity 76%-96%[97,101,104,137-140]