Copyright ©The Author(s) 2019.
World J Stem Cells. Jun 26, 2019; 11(6): 297-321
Published online Jun 26, 2019. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v11.i6.297
Table 3 Photobiomodulation studies
PhotobiomodulationConditionsBiological effectsReferences number
LLLTTumor transplantation in ratsFailure to affect the implanted tumor; Stimulation of hair regrowth and wound healing[135-138]
Cell-generated electromagnetic (light) signalsBaby hamster kidney cells on thin glass filmCell migration and orientation afforded by endogenous generation and processing of signals carried out by electromagnetic radiation (light)[139]
Near-infrared light scatteringCell cultureNear-infrared light scattering by cells mediates long-range attraction between them and aggregation within the culture system[140]
PBM with blue (420 nm) or green (540 nm) lighthADSCsPromotion of osteoblastic differentiation; Overexpression of a gene program of osteogenesis; Increase of intracellular calcium mediated by the activation of light-gated calcium ion channels[141, 142]
PBM with red (660 nm) or near-infrared (810 nm) lighthADSCsInduction of cell proliferation; Maintenance of low ROS level[151]
PBM with blue (415 nm) or green (540 nm) lighthADSCsInhibition of cell proliferation; Increase of low ROS level; Lowering of mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular pH[151]
Various forms of PBMAcute stroke in animal modelsImprovement of the outcome of acute stroke[152-157]
PBM with 810 nm laser lightHuman moderate-to-severe stroke associated with neurological defectsLong-lasting neurological improvement[158-160]
Near-infrared light scattering (665 nm and 810 nm)Traumatic brain injury in animal modelsRescue of neurological performance and reduction of the size of brain lesions; Increase of neuroprogenitor cells in mouse dentate gyrus and subventricular zone; Increase of learning memory; Improvement of mitochondrial function[161-168]
Near-infrared light scattering (665 nm and 810 nm)Human traumatic brain injuryImprovement of both language and cognitive performance, as well as brain tissue recovery[169-171]
PBM with near-infrared (810 nm) lightAlzheimer’s disease in animal modelsReduction of amyloid beta plaques; Decrease in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines; Increase in mitochondrial function, and ATP levels[172]
PBM with near-infrared (810 nm) lightHuman Alzheimer’s diseaseImprovement in Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive assessment; Enhancement of cerebral microcirculation[173-174]
PBM with near-infrared (810 nm) lightParkinson’s disease in animal modelsIncrease in the number of dopaminergic neurons[175-176]
PBM with near-infrared (810 nm) lightHuman Parkinson’s diseaseImprovement of the investigated indicators of balance, including gait, cognitive function, and speech[177]
LLLTAcute Myocardial infarction in the pigReduction of scarring; Improvement of heart function; Stem cell mobilization and recruitment to the ischemic heart[178]